Browsing: Medicine

Biomedical Services to Maintain Medical Instruments

New technologies have taken health care services to an advanced level. In the complex world of medical device manufacturing, repairing new biomedical instruments can be a major concern for health care centers. With the advent of cutting-edge technologies, the highly regulated biomedical industry has a slew of compliance issues to address. Biomedical services cater to the maintenance and repair of these scientific instruments. Patient monitoring accessories play a significant role in the efficiency and functionality of health care services of medical institutions and private practitioners.

These services ensure safe treatment of patients. They provide preventive maintenance in order to ensure proper functioning of all the essential medical devices. Additional assistance is also available at the equipment selection, acquisition and integration stages. The reputed firms offering biomedical repairing services follow strict procedural guidelines. This accounts for safe, effective and reliable operation of medical equipments. Among the different instruments, oxygen blender and suction regulators are some of the important tools which form a part of outstanding health care.

The advancement in technology led to the birth of life-saving medical equipments like ECG cables and machines. It has brought about a revolution in the field of medical treatment. The discovery of ECG machines is yet another revolutionary technology. The emergence of real-time audio, wireless communication, portable and ambulatory monitors and web-based access to patient's record, too, has revolutionized medical treatment. The dedicated biomedical services have a major focus on management and maintenance of important medical equipments. The highly experienced biomedical technicians are trained to perfection in doing the required repair work within the warranty period. Such reputed service providers can be accessed quite easily through the Internet.

Nowadays, pregnancy complications are reported to be occurring more than ever due to sedentary lifestyle. Heartbeat is the most vital indicator of the well being of an infant when still inside mother's womb. In pregnancy treatments, medical instruments like the fetal heart monitors play a very significant role. They help doctors to listen to the heartbeat of a baby inside a womb. They also enable doctors to analyze its health and decide on the medical attention to be given to the baby. Biomedical services can truly work wonders by providing high-end yet cost-effective repair and maintenance facilities. The qualified technicians make sure that all your apparatus has been taken care of in due course of time. Technological advances and health care go hand in hand. Medical science holds tremendous value for everyone. Here, it is the responsibility of health care experts to keep all their instruments in good shape. Good quality medical batteries are extremely essential. They produce reliable results from the test connected using various biomedical equipments, such as defibrillators, vital sign monitors, incubators, infusion pumps and body composition analyzers. Highly efficient batteries are also needed to operate heart defibrillators as they consume lots of energy. But, just being equipped with modern and high-tech accessories is not enough. Medical experts can not afford to underestimate the significance of biomedical services of repair and maintenance. So, go online to get a list of some of the reputed service providers.

{ Comments are closed }

How You Can Help Your Body Heal Itself

Time to take a different look at modern medicine. Everyday a new TV commercial for a new medication, I'm starting to think they create the medication first and then the disease or ailment for it to work on.

I was recently introduced to a supplement called StemEnhance which promotes your bone marrow to produce three to five million more of your own stem cells within sixty minutes. This is a great thing because as we age our body produces less stemcells. Notice how older folks take longer to heal than simple cuts and bruises.

These stem cells are then called to the part of your body that needs the most help first. Upon traveling through your blood stream and arriving at the troubled area in your body these Stem Cells will migrate into the tissue to become the cells of tissue in need of repair.

A Time Magazine cover story tells us that Stem Cells may offer diabetes help, heart trouble, and parkinsons disease. National Geography cover story tells of benefits of stemcell and how it is expected to increase life expectancy. LIFE magazine has no less positive comments to share. With stem cell research being constantly in the news these days, and for good reason. When one's own body can repair itself it is a wonderful thing.

Though Stemtech makes no claims to cure any disease, ailment, or make all your pain go away there are numerous testimonials all over the internet that you can read. Reduced arthritis pain, hip and joint pain to a minimal level, improved mental clarity, increased energy level, nightly leg cramps gone and overall feeling of well being are just some of the benefits I have enjoyed myself. Others have claimed to have restored use of limbs that did not work at all, constant back pain disappearing, decrease in stress and tension, getting diabetes under control, improved eyesight, decrease in sleepless nights. These are just some of the many benefits I have read as I searched Stemtech products.

This is not the fountain of youth by a long shot but may help in slowing down the aging process and keep us feeling better for a longer period of time during our lifespan.

Stemtech also produces StemPets which I have also used on my lab Bo suffering with arthritis in his rear hips. Results are simply amazing! After about two weeks on StemPets Bo is like a new dog, now active again, up and running rather than just being able to lay around all day only forcing himself up to go out as needed due to the pain he was suffering.

My take on Stemtech products is most definitely a positive one as Bo and I will continue using these supplements daily. I feel more comfortable using a over the counter type supplement rather than prescriptions with to many side effects to mention. Now my 80 year old mother has started on Stemtech as well.

{ Comments are closed }

Why Taking Flotrol Is Worth Your Time

Good thing that there are lots of the products that can help you to deal with this dilemma. You will never run out of choices when it comes to looking the solution that will end your bladder problem. And one of the best solutions that you can choose is the Flotrol natural bladder control. If you are not familiar with this product, then this article will give you all the important information that you need to know about it.

The Flotrol is a natural bladder control supplement that is now gaining lots of attention from different people who are having problems in their respective bladders. With the arrival of this product in the market, many people have become interested with it and hope that it will be the answer and will put an end to their bladder problem.

So are you ready to know some interesting facts about this product? Alright then, let us get down to business:

– The Flotrol is the bladder treatment that will help in stopping the malfunctioning of the bladder and restore it to its normal function.
– This product has two of the best and effective natural ingredients which are the soy seed and pumpkin seed extracts that are both proven and tested to be effective in treating any bladder problems.
– And since this product is made from all natural ingredients, you can really expect that you will be freed from any side effects worries. You can take this product regularly without worrying that it could affect your health.
– This product will not give you false and empty promises that will only disappoint you at the end of the day. Everything that it has advertised is all true and you are assured that you will have them as long as you will follow the instructions properly.

The things that you have read above are some of the great things and benefits that you can get from taking this product. These are also the same benefits that most people have acquainted with using this product. And you can see that most people that have purchased and tested this product are all satisfied and now are living a normal life without worrying about their bladders.

If you also want to be like these people, then all you really need to do is to look for this product and start following the sets of instructions that are given on it. It is just natural if you will have some doubts or reservation on this product especially if you have tried numerous products but only failed at each of your tries.

Moreover, with the many good feedbacks and positive comments and reviews that this product have received; giving this product a try will definitely be worth of your time.

{ Comments are closed }

Will Diet Pills Work For You

Diet pills! How many times a day do we hear that word on TV or radio advertisements? Pick up a magazine or newspaper and there it is again. How many diet pills are there to choose from? An easy guess would be too many. But which ones work, which ones do not, and are there any that do in fact work as described? There are so many questions, yet not enough time for those seeking to lose weight now, not in months. This can cause confusion as most people will seek the best ones on the market they can find. The problem is when looking at advertisements; each one will claim that they are the best.

How does a person choose the right diet pill for their own personal needs? Research! That is key to finding the right product. Look for online reviews for any product you are considering. There are many consumer reports available online it makes it much easier to find product reviews from people who have actually used the product you are interested in. It's also a good way to search for products that seem to get the most reviews in a positive light.

Another good way to find the right diet pill is to go to the local health store to purchase the product you are looking for. The staff at these stores are usually knowledgeable about the products they sell and since they talk to their customers all the time, they have firsthand information about a lot of the diet products they sell. This can be a very informative trip and can have you leaving with the confidence you need to reach your goals and actually save you time and money.

Going on a diet is something we hear a lot of, especially towards the end of the year and after the New Year as a resolution. It's also a big push before summer to fit into that new bathing suit. In some cases, there are those who will gain a few pounds at certain times of the year, and have no problem dropping those pounds off at any given moment. Unfortunately, it's not always the case and more people struggle for years with trying to lose weight.

Your focus should be on yourself and what you want to accomplish. Set yourself up for success with the right diet pill that will ease your struggle. Plan a regular exercise program and stick to it, and start looking at what you eat. What you eat is as important as how much you eat. Some foods help boost the metabolism while others aid in slowing it down. Do some research, ask around and get motivated to succeed. Diet pills can be your friend if you treat them right.

{ Comments are closed }

Observing a Live Hip Resurfacing Surgery

I had the opportunity to watch a live hip resurfacing surgery in Columbus, OH on Oct. 7, 2011. The story below is from a layman's perspective since I am not medically trained. I have written the story so patients can understand the basic procedures during surgery. I explain things so perspective patients can understand them. I am not trying to write a technical article on hip resurfacing surgery. It is my observations about what was happening in the OR.

Watching a live surgery as an observer is quite different than being a patient. As a patient, I never saw the inside of an operating room. The special shot given to relax me always put me to sleep before entering the OR. Being awake and watching the staff the OR for a hip resurfacing surgery is very interesting. The room is a beehive of activity. No one is rushing but everyone is doing their job efficiently while a little small talk occurs.

While the staff is preparing for the surgery, the medical representative selects the proper sized hip device. He also selects one size larger and one size smaller than the determined size to be used during the surgery. A special room stores all of the medical devices at the hospital. The representative from each medical company keeps the shelves stocked for their own devices.

Once the patient is prepared, the surgeon is ready to begin. His staff is a very competent and obviously use to working with him. His PA asserts him in all of his surgeries. The staff was aware I was observing the surgery and was very helpful in placing the video cameras so I could see everything that was happening.

Before surgery, the surgeon had studied the x-rays and used his templating system to determine where the middle of the neck of the femur bone was. He studied both the x-rays and his drawings for the correct placement of the femur cap on the center of the femur neck.

The hip resurfacing device was packaged in several sterile packages. The first box was opened by the representative and handed to an assistant. They opened the second package and handed it to the surgery assistant. All checked carefully, that the size was correct. There were many eyes checking many things all through the surgery. Everyone paid close attention even when they were not directly involved in the step being performed.

The surgeon prepared to make the first incision to expose the hip joint. He explained about the various muscles and ligaments he was working with as he surgically cut into the hip joint. I watched many surgeries on the Internet and at hip resurfacing courses, but watching a live surgery was quite different. I was able to see every step take place. Usually the videos only included the major part of the component placements. The surgeon uses the posterior approach with a large incision for best exposure.

He was very careful to preserve as much tissue around the neck of the femur to help maintain a good blood supply. When he uses the instrument to rotate around the femur neck to determine its center and size, it uses a tighter fitting setting than most surgeons use. This way he knows he is well centered.

The surgeon does the preliminary shaping of the femur ball leaving enough bone to allow him to change the diameter of the femur cap if needed after setting the acetabular cup. As I watched him work and listened to his comments to me, I realized once again, that hip resurfacing surgery is as much an “art” as it is a skill. There is more involved than just the information previously learned by the brain. There is an inner knowledge or awareness of what sees right. It is like any great athlete which just knows what to do without thinking about it. It is that experience and skill acquired throughout the years that also guides him along with his conscious decisions. The experience of doing hip resurfacing surgeries over and over helps him make the decisions without having to think about every one of them as he moves from one step to another.

The PA helps to rotate the leg and dislocate the joint to expose the acetabular portion of the hip. Any of the bone spurs or bony growths are removed from the joint very carefully. They must be cleaned away so there is no interference or impingement after the acetabular cup is set. The cup depression is removed with a type of router, almost like those used in woodworking. After the surgeon is happy with the preparation, the acetabular test cup is put into place. After testing and checking everything, the final acetabular cup is help by a special tool and then pounded into place. The surgeon prefers to hold the tool attached to the cup while his assistant taps the component into place. He feels this provides a better placement than when he tries to hold and tap at the same time.

Once the hip resurfacing acetabular cup is in place, he goes back to finishing and shaping the ball of the femur. He placed special draping cloths around the femur bone and neck to protect it from all the small bone chips and fragments that are removed with the shaping or routing tool. The drills and routers all look very much like woodworking tools and are battery operated. I am sure they cost much more than normal woodworking tools! The femur ball is shaped to accept the cup that will match with the acetabular cup already placed in the hip.

The femur cap is placed on the femur with cement and tapped for a forced fit. The cement operation is very interesting. It has two components something like epoxy. The cement must be timed because it has a reaction and then sets right now. I was able to feel a small amount in my hand. As it gets ready to “fire” or set, it becomes warm and quickly becomes very hard. This is a tricky part of the surgery because everything must be timed correctly. Also the right amount of cement must be added to the inside of the femur cap. The amount of cement is critical because too little will not allow good adhesion and too much can prevent good bone growth. The pin of the femur cap is not cemented and is only used to place the cap. The representative is calling out the time so the surgeon and assistants know when the cement is ready to set. The femur cap is also tapped onto the properly shaped femur bone. A few extra holes are drilled into the femur bone to allow the cement to penetrate.

The leg is flexed and rotated to make sure that the components are placed properly and there is no problem. There should not be any impingement and everything should move smoothly. This test is performed several times with the test components and after the actual components are installed.

After the femur cap has been cemented and tapped into place, it is time to clean up the area. The sterile drape is removed with all the pieces from the painting and the extra cement is also removed that has squirted out from the cap. There is not much as I can tell, but the surgeon is very careful to clean it all up. After everything is in place, the whole area is washed with sterile fluids. After that, everything is washed several times with betadine.

The surgeon does the initial stitching when closing the incision. He does the first several layers, then his PA closes the rest of the incision. The outer layer is stapled closed.

An x-ray is taken right after surgery to show the placement of the components. The x-ray showed the femur cap pin to be in the middle of the femur neck and the acetabular component placed at an optimum angle.

I realized several things as I observed the live surgery. Most importantly, the surgeon that is very experienced is as much an “artist” and a surgeon. There are instinctive movements and decisions made by the experienced surgeon that he does not even have to think about. The surgeon's actions are like a pro athlete, musician or artist meaning they are doing something they love and make many intuitive decisions based on a great deal of experience and talent.

I think the most important aspect of the live surgery which impressed me is how much both the surgeon and all of the staff in the OR cared about the patient. They are all very attentive and treat the patient with respect and kindness. I watched one person give the patient a gentle pat on the leg as if to say “everything will be OK because we are here and care about you.” Everyone appeared to care and want to be there, they were not counting the minutes or hours until quitting time. I know they do this day in and day out, but there was a feeling of caring and wanting to do a great job.

{ Comments are closed }

Is Traditional Chinese Medicine Better Than Modern Western Medicine?

Since young, I've only visited doctors trained in modern western medicine. Usually the pills and liquids prescribed to me worked, or so I would think as I recover days later. However as I grew up and learnt biology, we were taught one important fact – because we have our immune system therefore we are still alive now. Here even without any drug interventions, we would have recovered from our sickness all by ourselves, as long as our immune system was in good working conditions. However as humans, we're always impatient and want to feel well again as soon as possible or there are times when our immune systems just are not at their peak conditions and our bodies can not cure itself. This is where medicine comes in.

Modern Western medicine auditors illness as being triggered by something that causes a series of wrong chemical relays resulting in bodily malfunctions, and sets out to correct this by destroying that something or intercepting somewhere in this signal relay and hence stop the spread of the illness or even get rid of it. On the other hand, Traditional Chinese Medicine tackles this issue of falling ill by strengthening the immune system, while at the same time expunging the disease causative agent if necessary. Precisely because of the way they work, Modern Western medicine typically exhibit a faster recovery rate, whereas Traditional Chinese medicine makes an individual more able to fight of pathogens and less likely to fall ill in the long run.

Another issue between these two kinds of medicine that comes under fire is that Modern Western medicine is backed by solid scientific research, whereas there is insufficient scientific research that can support the use of Traditional Chinese medicine. I am definitely not arguing against the strong evidence that modern western medicine has from research, but western medicine is termed as 'modern' simply because it revolutionized about 200 years ago, whereas Traditional Chinese medicine has a history of more than 2000 years. The long history of Traditional Chinese medicine indicates that since its crude origins, it has been tested on many other humans, been put through the test of natural selection, and still has managed to evolve and survive to this very day. This certainly has to be a proof for its efficiency.

After all the research and history behind both these fields of medicine, they too have their share of failures. Modern Western medicine's research is based on clinical trials that require a certain statistical percentage of successfully treated cases before it can be used. However, there are those on the other side of the percentage – the unsuccessfully treated ones. Likewise Traditional Chinese Medicine history has been dotted with unsuccessful treatments that triggered in deaths. However without these failures, both kinds of medicine would not have been able to progress to where they both stand today.

Therefore, it can not be simply concluded which field of medicine is better. Both Traditional Chinese medicine and Modern Western medicine have different treatment principles and methods, results and failures. As long as they both continue to benefit mankind, I believe we should acknowledge that both Traditional Chinese medicine and Modern Western medicine have a place in our society, and our society can do with both.

{ Comments are closed }

Getting Ready For a Traditional Chinese Medicine Doctor Consultation – What You Need To Know

How different can the process of seeing a Traditional Chinese medicine doctor be as compared to a Modern medicine doctor? Is not it just a simple process of answering questions so that we can get our medicine? That is only half of the truth. Preparing yourself well would ensure that you get the best and most out of the consultation.

As Traditional Chinese medicine places emphasis on treating a person depending on his or her constitution and the varying severity of symptoms, many more questions are typically asked during the consultation as compared to that of Modern medicine. Also, depending on the reason for consultation, be it an acute or chronic illness or for overall well-being, questions asked will also differ to some extent.

For an acute illness, questions asked will tend to center around the main symptom (s). For example in the case of influenza, questions asked could be whether there is fever, runny or congested nose, sputum (phlegm) or body aches – all very similar to that of Modern medicine. However, in Traditional Chinese medicine, the symptoms related to influenza do not end there. Influenza is known as shanghan in Traditional Chinese medicine, and away from the above, including symptoms such as being afraid of the cold and wind, whether the patient has perspired or not and if so, the amount of perspiration, parts of the body (head only or entity body) where perspiration occurred and when the perspiration occurred (occurs during sleep or only when wake, worsens in the day or night). Even regular bowel movements are often asked questions.

If yours is a chronic illness, then away from the symptoms related to the illness, more questions will then be asked as compared to that of an acute illness. There are two reasons for this. The first reason is that the name of this chronic illness in Modern medicine does not necessarily translate to an exactly identical illness in Traditional Chinese medicine, but may instead consist of several illnesses combined and it is necessary to determine which is the primary illness in Traditional Chinese medicine. The second is that even after determining the primary illness, the treatment has to be tailor to suit the patient's overall constitution, even more so than that of acute illness. Anything from migraines, to chest tightness, appetite, back aches etc can be asked. If you have any of these, it is a good idea to let the doctor know because it can assist the doctor in his prognosis and he / she may even be able to relate you of the ailment.

Consulting a Traditional Chinese medicine doctor to improve your general well-being is a process similar to that of chronic illness, but questions asked will be more general, less focused (unless there's a discomfort that you are interested in correcting) and less detailed.

Unique to Traditional Chinese medicine, there also includes the looking at face color, viewing of the tongue and the feeling of the pulse from the wrist of both hands. Therefore to ensure that the doctor is able to collect all this necessary information, it is best to go without makeup and scrapping the tongue, and avoid consumption of colored food or drinks like sweets or coffee. If you have done either of the above, remember to inform the doctor.

Armed with the above knowledge, remember to take note of the symptoms experienced and relate them to your Traditional Chinese medicine-trained doctor. It would help him / her be able to give you a more accurate diagnosis and hence achieve the result that both of you want – your recovery!

{ Comments are closed }

Angina Pectoris – What You Need to Know About the Heart Disease

Angina pectoris or chest pain is one of the conditions which are triggered by the problems in the cardiovascular system. The disease means “the squeezing of the chest” in Latin. While the sufferer does not really feel the pain around his or her chest, the disease causes discomfort around the chest such as the sensations of choking, burning, squeezing, heaviness, and pressure. Sometimes, the sensations can also be experienced in shoulders, jaw, neck area, back, and upper central abdomen. Besides the said symptoms, a person who suffers from the disease may also show other signs such as heartburn, weakness, sweating, nausea, cramping, shortness of breath, and indigestion.

Typically, angina pectoris is recognized in two types:

– Stable angina is found more often in people. The symptoms of this type occur regularly and are foreseeable. Usually, people with this type suffer from the chest discomfort during exercise and stress, or after consuming heavy meals. Generally, the symptoms last not more than five minutes and improve when the patient rests or takes medications such as nitroglycerin, amlodipine besylate, or ranolazine.

– Unstable angina is found less often but more serious than the first type. Unlike the stable one, the occurrence of unstable angina can not be predicted. The symptoms of this type also tend to be more severe. Unstable angina usually creates more pain and occurs longer and more frequent. Usual medication or resting can not improve the symptoms. While unstable angina differs from heart attack, it is often noted as the precursor to heart attack.

People who are at risk of angina are:

– Men above 55 years old,

– Women above 65 years old,

– Obese or overweight,

– Cigarette smokers,

– Having high blood pressure,

– Having high cholesterol levels,

– Physically inactive,

– Having kidney disease,

– Having diabetes mellitus, and

– Having family history of premature cardiovascular disease (men who suffer from heart disease below the age of 55 or women who suffer from the same disease below 65 year old).

Nitroglycerin in spray or tablet, calcium channel blockers, and beta blockers are common medications given to angina patients between resting. For more permanent result, angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery are suggested for the patients. While medications and surgeries can be given as angina treatments, to reduce and prevent the occurrence of the disease, the patients need to change their lifestyle. To prevent angina as well as other cardiovascular diseases, you need to exercise regularly, maintain normal weight, avoid stress, consume healthy diet, and stop alcohol and cigarette consumption.

{ Comments are closed }

Tribulus Terrestris: Effects and Considerations

Did you know that Tribulus Terrestris is also known by the names of Puncture Vine, Yellow Vine, Caltrop, and Goathead? Along with its nomenclature, the effects of the drug too are considered to be quite intriguing. Tribulus is originally a plant that is intensively grown across Sri Lanka, Pakistan and India. It has been increasingly incorporated in health tonics propounded by Ayurveda, the ancient natural form of treatment of Indian origin. Today, however, the whole world has awakened to the benefits of Tribulus Terrestris.

One of the primary reasons for the surging popularity of this herb has been the easy availability of Tribulus supplements through online portals. However, discretion is advised when choosing an online supplement provider to buy from. The quality of the product would solely depend on the source from which it is procured.

Tribulus Terrestris: Effects

The effects of Tribulus Terrestris can be summarized as follows:

1. Primarily, the herb is being marketed as a sex booster. The primary active chemical present is known as Protodioscin or PTN. It is responsible for elevating the levels of testosterone in the system. As a result, it is considered to improve sex drive. However, studies have revealed that despite the extract really helps in elevating hormone levels, they are essentially residual within the standard range always. Therefore, miracles are not on the cards. In addition, they also improve mounting ability and is known to cause significant increase in libido. Enhanced sex drive also takes care of problems like erectile dysfunction. Therefore, an overall improvement is witnessed in sexual behavior.

2. Tribulus Terrestris is also considered to be an effective muscle relaxant. It relaxes the smooth muscles and enhancements blood flow in and around the penis. This could also be one of the reasons for the improved sexual behavior.

3. As a latent benefit of the above, the herb could also be considered as an effective remedy for those suffering from intestinal colic.

4. Some have also reported a strengthening of the immune mechanism and an impact on activities within the bone marrow.

5. Consumption in high doses also elevates energy levels substantially.

Tribulus Terrestris: Considerations

Although Tribulus Terretris is potentially safe when administered in correct dosages, there are certain considerations that one must keep in mind. Some of the associated side effects of the extract could include rapid heartbeat, feeling excessively hot and unmanageable restlessness. Taking breaks in between doses can prove to be critical. It is always advisable to seek medical advice and regulate intake patterns accordingly.

{ Comments are closed }

The Hospital Handshake

Today, during my psychiatry rotation, a very grateful patient confronted my attending and thanked him profusely for saving him. The patient had been severely depressed and was at his wit's end before they met. The doctor listened to him, analyzed his situation, and came up with a plan to help which included involving the patient 'family as well as using proper medication. The patient had a great response to this and now wanted to express this to my attending. Thus entered the 'hospital handshake.'

After spending enough time in the hospital, I have come to the conclusion that it's a dirty place. This was not an epiphany that I experienced; rather, it's just a simple conclusion after seeing / experiencing the dirtiest parts of people through the hospital. I've even seen a psych patient throw his own feces at his roommate because he 'did not like the way he was looking at him.'

Therefore, when the grateful patient offered his hand to the doctor to shake as a sign of being thankful, I could sort of understand why the attending was allowed for a second. It was not just the hesitation that tickled me. As we were leaving the floor, the attending walk out of his way to douse his hands in hand cleanser.

A lot of people may have found that action as perfectly reasonable. Especially in this day and age in which around every corner you turn there is a sign about washing hands and stopping infection. And to add to that, I had to complete a form upon starting the rotation that quizzed me on the proper length of time of hand washing (it's 15 to 20 seconds if you're curious). However, the attending and I both knew that we were purely heading back to the psych floor where we were going to continue our conversation about his recent trip to India. There would be no spread of infection (there was no reason to believe this patient had an infection anyway) to other patients.

I do not bring this up because I have a problem with hand washing after physical contact with patients; in fact, I think it's a great habit to get in to. I bring it up because the scene takes me as borderline disrespectful to the patient.

Imagine this, you go to your parents house for Thanksgiving. It's been months since you've seen them and your father has still not thanked you for helping him with a medical problem that he'd been dealing with. He remembers that he forgot to tell you how grateful he was, so he elaborates his appreciation as you greet each other. He finishes by giving you a stern, fatherly handshake to demonstrate how sturdy he feels. In this particular case, neither your father nor yourself has any signs of an infection. After this, you walk past him to the nearest bathroom to wash your hands (for 15 to 20 seconds, of course).

Is this something your father would take charge to? If that was my child, I would feel like he just took my sign of appreciation and smacked me in the face with it. So why is this not the case when a patient wants to shake the hand of the caregiver that had such a profound effect on their life?

In this particular interaction with the attending and patient, I did not perceive the attending as respecting the patient. From the hesitation to shake his hand to cleansing the physical contact from himself once he turned from the patient, the attending came across as cold and uncaring.

My fear is that this lack of respect can be extrapolated to all patients. This would be even more prominent on an inpatient psychiatry floor in which many patients do not have a firm grass on reality. Will I soon find myself losing respect for patients; declining handshakes and ignoring their displays of gratitude? I hope not.

{ Comments are closed }

Bone Marrow Transplant – Treating the Incurable

Ever since the medical science achieved a major landmark with the first successful bone marrow transplant in the year 1968, the treatment has emerged as a revolutionary medical procedure that can be used to treat many diseases which were widely perceived to be incurable. This breakthrough medical procedure is now used to treat several life threatening diseases such as aplastic anemia, leukemia, breast cancer, immune deficiency disorders, among many others.

However, even though BMTs are now able to cure a significant number of people every year who are suffering from malignant and non malignant diseases, there are still many patients who are not able to receive this treatment for lack of a compatible bone marrow donor.

What is Bone Marrow Transplant?

The spongy or flexible tissue that is present in the interior of bones is known as bone marrow. It is present in the large size bones, such as breast bone, hips and spinal where it produces new blood cells. The blood cells include white blood cells (leukocytes), platelets and the red blood cells (erythrocytes).

In patients who are suffering from diseases such as Leukemia, aplastic anemia or other immune deficiency disorders, the stem cells in the marrow produce abnormal blood cells that hinder the production of normal blood cells. In a transplant, the diseased marrow that is producing the abnormal blood cells is destroyed by treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation and is replaced by healthy marrow. This healthy marrow replicates the dysfunctional one that was present in the cavities of the bones and starts producing healthy blood cells. If successful, this treatment may completely cure the patient of his disease. It may take as long as one year for the transplanted marrow to start performing its functions at the optimum level. During this time period, the patient has to undergo frequent checks for any complications that may occur.

How much does BMT cost?

It is an expensive medical treatment that usually involves an expenditure that runs into thousands of dollars. Also, many insurance companies do not provide full insurance for bone marrow transplantation. The cost of the treatment also depends on the kind of transplant that the patient receives. For instance, the cost of an autologous transplant is significantly less than the cost of an Allogeneic or Syngeneic implant. An autologous transplant is one in which the patient earlier donates her own stem cells for the transplant. In an Allogeneic transplant, the person receives the stem cells from a family member or an unrelated donor, while in a Syngeneic transplant, the person donating the stem cells is an identical twin to the patient.

For patients who are looking for an affordable bone marrow transplant, Bone Marrow Transplant in Turkey provides cost effective bone marrow transplant with excellent medical facilities.

{ Comments are closed }

Surgery In Mexico – A Brief Analysis

Mexico, due to its southern proxies to United States, is a naturally preferred location for the medical tourism activities. Mexico medical tourism is assisted by the fact that it is very close to two of the largest countries that utilizes medical tourism services, United States and Canada. This country boasts a vast coast line and has 31 states. Every year, millions of foreigners visit Mexico. It has a rich and diverse culture and exotic food. The travel destinations in Mexico draw millions of American tourists every year. The Mexican economy is currently rated as the 14 the largest in the world.

There are many quality hospitals in Mexico catering to the American and Canadian patients. Many of them are JCI accredited. Due to the proximate, these hospitals are aware of the expectations of the American patients. Although these hospitals are not as huge as many Indian hospitals, some still have JCI accreditation. Many doctors have completed the advanced training in the United States or other countries. Mexican doctors have the capability of performing the many cosmetic and bariatric surgeries. Recently, these surgeries have become their niche practice area due to overwhelming demand from America. Many surgeons are very good and many hospitals have some English speaking staff on staff. The customer service levels in many of these elite hospitals are good.

In general surgery in Mexico is a mixed bag. There are huge variations in the quality of medical practitioners and medical facilities. The quackery is abundant and since the quality and reputation of the hospital are very important in choosing a surgery in Mexico. Some so called clinics are very little and lacking basic facilities. The cheap clinics in Mexico and South America have played a significant factor in public wariness due to their highly disproportionate share of blotched surgeries and resulting negative media publicity. Steer away from such clinics. The main lure is the price. While price is important in medical tourism, it is not everything. There should be equal emphasis on quality and safety. We should understand that one blotched surgery is too many and any mortality should not be acceptable.

In view of escalating drug-related violence in Mexico's major border towns, one should be concerned about safety .. In the April 2011, the US State Department issued a warning for American citizens traveling to Mexico. The warning states that, drug cartels are engaged in wars to control their territories and drug trade. Battling each other for control of the drug trade. They are also involved in combating the government's efforts to control the situation. While it is true that the tourists for the most part are not specifically targeted, there have been several tragic stories. Especially there has been a spurt of violence near its northern border, especially Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez and Nogales.

Having said that, Mexico is not full of dangers. It is a big country. Many still travel to Mexico and do not encounter problems. One has to be vigilant and exercise common sense precautions like avoiding known violent cities, and thinking about safety always. Some tips include wearing money belts, avoiding darker and lonely areas and traveling in safer taxis.

{ Comments are closed }

Preparaton H – Best Hemorrhoids Treatment

If you suffer from hemorrhoids, you know that they are painful and itchy. If you experience the unpleasant effects of hemorrhoids, there is help available without having to visit a doctor. You do not need to be embarrassed if you suffer from this condition. It is a very common problem, and many adults suffer from it. In fact, doctors' statistics conclude that up to 50% of adults will suffer from hemorrhoids or piles before the age of 50. Preparation H is a medicated cream that acts as an effective external hemorrhoids treatment and is available without a doctor's prescription. Applying this cream is a fast and easy way to relieve symptoms.

Hemorrhoids are veins in the rectum or in the anus that become swollen and painful. Other common symptoms of hemorrhoids may include anal itching, pain that may be particularly bad while sitting, and bleeding. Hemorrhoids may cause bloody stools, and they can be either internal or external. External hemorrhoids often look like smallish lumps on the outer portion of the anus, hanging down from the rectum. They can be felt by running your finger around the anal opening.

Hemorrhoids are thought to be caused by increased pressure on the anus. Constipation and training during bowel movement can cause hemorrhoids. Pregnant women are more likely to have hemorrhoids due to the increased strain from pregnancy and from childbirth. Other known causes include common dirrhea, obesity, injury to the anus from anal interference, and common stress.

There are a variety of ways to treat this condition. One of the simplest ways is through treatment applied externally. By using the best hemorrhoids cream, you can experience relief from the pain and itching of hemorrhoids. Taking a bath in lukewarm water two or three times a day for at least 15 minutes will provide immediate relief. Make sure that the water is not too hot because that could irritate the infected area. After each bath session, sit on an ice pack for at least ten minutes to help bring down the swelling.

You may also want to consider combining the best hemorrhoids cream with a change in your diet to help reduce constipation. By adding more fiber into your diet, you can prevent constipation and there before reduce the amount of strain on the rectum, which worsens hemorrhoids. By doing this along with using hemorrhoids cream, you will help to reduce the cause of the hemorrhoids while also treating and soothing the pain associated with them.

Relief is on the way with a popular and proven product called Preparation H. Use this product to reduce pain and itchiness from hemorrhoids today. Nobody should have to suffer the pain and itchiness of hemorrhoids- take action and treat your hemorrhoids today.

{ Comments are closed }

Voter Approved Medical Dispensary – States And Federal Law

US Medical Marijuana Card

In the United States, there are currently 16 Legal Medical Marijuana States and District of Columbia that currently have laws that have legalized marijuana for medicinal purposes.

The states are:

Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, DC, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.

You may acquire a Marijuana Card only if you suffer from a medical condition as prescribed by a doctor.

Although many states have approved medical marijuana as an alternative form of medication for many ailments, the United States Government is still in opposition of the state laws regarding voter approved marijuana.

For example, in a well written article, there is a reason to believe that those marijuana patients in the states that currently allow marijuana use for medicinal purposes are in jeopardy of losing their Second Amendment Rights.

Second Amendment Rights are The Right To Bear Arms as a US citizen.

According to the article, The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms (ATF) says that a patient gives up his or her constitutional right just by letting the state know that they want to take medical marijuana.

The article also points out that medical marijuana users have diminished rights just by having a marijuana card.

Here's how the ATF sees it:

If you are a medical marijuana patient, you are in violation of federal code Sect. 922 (g) of the federal Gun Control Act, which basically says that anyone “who is an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance” is basically barred from possessing or receiving guns or ammo.

The article is worth reading, which I highly recommend … and most importantly, if you are going to apply for a medical marijuana card, it's best to know all of your rights and options.

Read the full article here .

In addition to the marijuana patients potential losing their Second Amendment rights, there have been a serious assault by California federal agents against marijuana dispensaries throughout the state; the Feds are threatening to shut down dispensaries and sending letters out to landlords warning them about the sales of the drug on their promises.

In the letter, it warns the landlord that they must comply within 45 days in order to avoid the possibility that their property will be located and they will be sent to prison.

What is your opinion concerning this controversial dialate? Let your voice be heard at the polls.

{ Comments are closed }

Maximizing a Student’s Understanding of Biostatistics Through the Review of Medical Research Studies

Introduction

In order to maximize understanding of biostatistics and its applications, a great practice for students is to review medical research studies. When reviewing medical research studies, it is important for students to recognize the type of study (randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, or longitudinal study) employed and whether the study is retrospective or prospective. Understanding the type of research used and whether it is retrospective or prospective will assist a student in determining a study's validity in an objective manner. This paper will briefly describe the preceding terms and then go on to applying these terms to five medical research study abstracts that I will describe in detail while pointing out each study's potential strengths and weaknesses.

Types of Studies

There are four types of studies that can be used in the design of a medical research study, those being a randomized clinical trial, case control study, cohort study, and longitudinal study. A randomized clinical trial study is “a clinical study where volunteer subjects with comparable characteristics are randomly assigned to different test groups to compare the efficacy of therapies” (Randomized Clinical Trial, 2011, para. 1). A case control study is epidemiological study used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical illness by comparing those who have the disease or condition of interest (the cases) with those who do not have the disease or condition of interest (the controls). A cohort study is “a study in which subjects who already have a certain condition and / or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group who are not affected by the condition under investigation” (What is Cohort Research ?, 2011 , para. 1). A longitudinal study is a study that follows patients over a prolonged period of time. Some sources also describe a longitudinal study as one in which the same patients are examined on two or more occasions.

A study can either be retrospective or prospective. Retrospective studies look backwards in time and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an income that is established at the start of the study. In contrast, a prospective study looks forward in time and watches for outcomes, such as the development of a disease, during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor (s).

Research Study Abstract # 1

The first medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “A Large Study of Long-Term Daily Use of Adult-Strength Aspirin and Cancer Incidence” by Eric J. Jacobs, Michael J. Thun, Elizabeth B. Bain, Carmen Rodriguez , S. Jane Henley, and Eugenia E. Calle.

This study shows evidence that aspirin use correlates with lowered risks of colon cancer and possibly several other cancers, including prostate and breast cancer. The study method examined associations between long-term daily use of adult strength aspirin (325 mg / day) measuring overall cancer incidence and incidence of 10 types of cancer among 69810 men and 76303 women. These men and women, who were reliably elderly, took part in the Cancer Prevention Study.

Since aspirin use was reported at enrollment in 1992-1993 and updated in 1997, 1999, and 2001, this is a cohort study. Individuals were already classified as groups at the beginning of the study into those who were taking 325 mg / day of aspirin and those who were not. The study is also retrospective in nature because it looked at survey data that was already provided by the American Cancer Society.

Results of the experiment showed that during a follow-up in 2003, that Long-term (5 years) daily use of adult-strength aspirin, in comparison with no aspirin use, was associated with lower overall cancer rate in men (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76 to 0.93). Since the confidence interval does not include 1 and RR (rate ratios) for men was <1, results are deemed statistically significant. A non-statistically significantly lower overall cancer rate was reported in women (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). Although the RR (rate ratios) for women was <1, the confidence interval includes 1; results a deemed to be non-significant because variation can account for the observed correlation. Results also show that long-term daily aspirin use correlated with lower incidence that was statistically significant of colorectal cancer (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.90 among men and women combined) and prostate cancer prostate cancer (RR = 0.81, 95 % CI = 0.70 to 0.94). Non-statistically significantly lower overall female breast cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.10) was shown by the results.

Since this study is a retrospective cohort study, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths are that it is good for displaying multiple outputs and is relatively inexpensive. Major weaknesses include that the investigator has little or no control over exposure and output, the temporal relationship is often difficult to determine, it requires large samples for rare consequences, and the comparability between exposed and unexposed is difficult to achieve.

Research Study Abstract # 2

The second medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Effects of Immediate Versus Delayed Pushing during Second-Stage Labor on Fetal Well-Being: A Randomized clinical trial” by Kathleen Rice Simpson and Dotti C. James.

This study shows evidence that it is more favorable for the well-being (in terms of fetal oxygen desaturation / saturation and variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate) of an infant for mothers at 10-cm cervical dilation to delay pushing until the woman feels the urge to push versus being trained to immediately start pushing at 10-cm cervical dilation. The study also shows that women who pushed immediately had more perineal lacerations. No differences were shown in the results between pushing and delayed pushing in length of labor, method of birth, Apgar scores, or umbilical cord blood gases.

Since women were randomly allocated to receive one or other of the alternative treatments under study (to push or delay pushing) this is a randomized clinical trial. It is also prospective in nature because it looked forward in time and watched for consequences.

Results of the experiment showed significant difference between groups in fetal oxygen desaturation during the 10-cm cervical dilation (immediate: M = 12.5; delayed: M = 4.6) F (1, 43) = 12.24, p = .001, and in the number of> = 2-min epochs of fetal oxygen saturation <30% (immediate: M = 7.9; delayed: M = 2.7), F (1, 43) = 6.23, p = .02. There were more variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate in the immediate pushing group (immediate: M = 22.4; delayed: M = 15.6) F (1, 43) = 5.92, p = .02. Women who immediately at pushed 10-cm cervical dilation had more perineal lacerations (immediate: n = 13; delayed: n = 5) [chi] 2 (1, N = 45) = 6.54, p = .01. Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values ​​fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; in other words, the null hypothesis is corrected in variable decelerations of the fetal heart rate, fetal oxygen saturation, and perinatal lacerations.

Since this study is a prospective randomized clinical trial, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include elimination of bias in treatment assignment, facilitation of blinding (masking) of the identity of treatment from investigators, participants, and assessors, and it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood that any difference in out between treatment groups is purely indicative chance. Weaknesses include potential limitations of external validity on where the study was performed, on characteristics of the patients, on study procedures, on output measures, and in incomplete reporting of adverse effects of interventions. In addition, randomized clinical trials can be quite expensive to perform.

Research Study Abstract # 3

The third medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “An Intervention to Increase Safety Behaviors of Abused Women” by Judith McFarlane, Ann Malecha, Julia Gist, Kathy Watson, Elizabeth Batten, Iva Hall, and Sheila Smith.

This study shows evidence that telephone intervention is an effective way increase safety behaviors of abused women who are victims of intimate partner violence. Intervention is administrated immediately after an abusive behavior and remains effective for 6 months after the treatment. A two-group trial randomized 75 abused women to receive six telephone intervention periods on safety behaviors. A control group of 75 women received standard care. Women in both groups were re-interviewed at 3 months and 6 months for post-initial measurement.

Since women were randomly selected to receive the alternative treatment or be part of the control group under the study (to receive intervention or not receive intervention) this is a randomized clinical trial. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it follows subjects over a prolonged period of time through re-interviewing the women at both 3 months and 6 months.

Results of the experiment showed significant difference between groups who received intervention to those who did not. More adopted safety behaviors were reported by women in the intervention group [F (2,146) 5.11, p = .007] than women in the control group at both the 3-month [F (91, 74) = 19.70, p <.001 ] and 6-month [F (1, 74) = 15.90, p <.001] interviews. Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values ​​fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; the null hypothesis is rejected in women who received intervention at both the 3-month and 6-month interviews.

As previously discussed, since this study is a prospective randomized clinical trial, it does have several specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include elimination of bias in treatment assignment, facilitation of blinding (masking) of the identity of treatment from investigators, participants, and assessors, and it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood that any difference in out between treatment groups is purely indicative chance. Weaknesses include potential limitations of external validity on where the study was performed, on characteristics of the patients, on study procedures, on output measures, and in incomplete reporting of adverse effects of interventions. In addition, randomized clinical trials can be quite expensive to perform.

Research Study Abstract # 4

The fourth medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Treatments of Coronary Artery Disease Improve Quality of Life in the Long Term” by Hannele Lukkarinen and Maija Hentinen.

This study shows evidence that long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after 8 years is more favorable for patients receiving a bypass operation or angioplasty than the baseline of 1 year after surgery. Also, in patients taking medication, the study shows that there were no significant changes were reported in the HRQoL of the patients on medication when comparing the baseline to 8 years after treatment. It is important to note that a significant impairment on the response variable of sleep had taken place during the 8 years follow-up after angioplasty. The initial study was made up of 280 patients where 100 of those patients underent a bypass operation, 100 had an angioplasty, and 80 were prescribed medication. After 1 year, 81 bypass operation patients, 74 angioplasty patients, and 64 patients in the medication group responded. In the final analysis after 8 years, 63 bypass operation patients, 57 angioplasty patients, and 34 patients in the medication group responded.

Since patients with coronary artery disease are compared by their method of treatment this is a case control study. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it follows subjects over a prolonged period of time through interviewing patients after 1 and 8 years.

Results of the experiment showed patients had a statistically significantly better HRQoL 8 years after the operation than at baseline on the response variables of mobility (p <.001), energy (p = .003), and pain (p = .031). Angioplasty patients had a statistically significantly better HRQoL 8 years after the intervention on the response variables of emotional reactions (p = .002), pain (p = .003), mobility (p = .004), and energy (p = .005) ). A significant deficiency on the response variable of sleep had taken place after 8 years follow-up after angioplasty (p = .018), Assuming that the alpha is.05; the p-values ​​fall well below the threshold and are deemed to be statistically significant; the null hypotheses after 8 years regarding HRQoL and sleep are restored.

Since this study is a prospective case control study, it does have certain specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include that it is good for rare diseases, requires little time to conduct, has the potential of exploring multiple exposures and is reliably inexpensive. Weaknesses include the reliance on recall or historical data, that temporality can be difficult to establish, and the comparability of cases and controls.

Research Study Abstract # 5

The fifth medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Caregiving Experiences After Stroke” by Cynthia S Teel, Pamela Duncan, and Sue Min Lai.

The purpose of this study was to examine correlation between patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver managing resources with caregiver physical and mental health results at 3 and 6 months after a dependent adult's stroke. Another objective was to compare family members' evaluations of patient disability with assessment by doctors. The caregiver study was conducted in partnership with a study of patient effects after stroke. 83 Caregivers completed and processed back questions at 1, 3, and 6 months after the patient's stroke. The surveys asked questions on fatigue and energy, assessment of mood disturbance, stress, spirituality, and reactions to the caregiving situation. This data recorded by respondents provided a detailed assessment of caregiver characteristics, coping resources, and physical and mental health status.

Since Individuals were already classified as a group at the beginning of the study into caregivers and patients, this is a cohort study. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it follows subjects over a prolonged period of time through interviewing caregivers at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months.

Results of the experiment showed correlation between physical health and depressive symptoms are parallel at 3 and 6 months. Perceived stress was correlated to mental health at 3 and 6 months. Caregiver ratings of disability at 1 month matched doctor's assessments using the Orpington Prognostic scale. Results also show evidence of a caregiver's stable perceptions of fatigue, vigor, recurrent sorrow, perceived stress, finances, family support, physical health, and depression symptoms at 1, 3, and 6 months after a dependent adult's stroke. It was determined that a comprehensive approach to stroke rehabilitation should include comprehensive assessment of caregiver functioning soon after a dependent adult's stroke. Early assessment may identify persons at greater risk for physical and mental health problems in a continuing caregiving role.

Since this study is a prospective cohort study, it does have certain specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths are that there is the possibility to study multiple exposures and multiple outputs in one cohort and rare exposures can be studied. Major weaknesses are that it is not possible to establish causal effects and it is easily susceptible to selection bias. Also, prospective cohort studies can be quite expensive to perform.

Research Study Abstract # 6

The sixth medical research study abstract that will be described in detail is “Daily Stress and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Women With Irritable Bowel Syndrome” by Vicky L. Hertig, Kevin C. Cain, Monica E Jarrett, Robert L. Burr, Margaret M. Heitkemper .

The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of daily self-reported stress to gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms both across women and within woman in a comparison group of women without Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and among subgroups of women with IBS.

Since correspondents are compared by daily self-reported stress to gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms both across women and within woman in a comparison group of women without IBS and among subgroups of women with IBS, this is a case control study. It is also prospective and longitudinal in nature because it follows subjects over a prolonged period of time through the testing of respondents daily for a month.

This study shows evidence that gastrointestinal symptom discomfort is associated with self-reported stress in women with IBS; stress has been associated to be contributing factor to launching bowel and discomfort symptoms and making the problem worse in patients with IBS. Results of the experiment showed significant cross-women correlations among mean daily stress, psychological distress, and GI symptoms in the total IBS group and the IBS bowel pattern subgroups. Across-women and within-woman analyzes were used. Women with IBS (n = 181; age = 18-49 years) were divided into subgroups based on bowel pattern (constipation, n = 52; dirrhea, n = 67; alternating, n = 62) and were compared to a group of women without IBS (n = 48). Self-report stress measures were abdominal (abdominal pain, bloating, and intestinal gas), bowel pattern (constipation, diarrhea), and intestinal gas; and psychological (anxiety and depression) distress symptoms were obtained daily over 1 month. The across-women relationships between daily stress and gastrointestinal symptoms were less when anxiety and depression were controlled in the test. Although within-woman analyzes showed little evidence of correlation between day-to-day variations in stress and day-to-day variations in GI symptoms, stress was consistently related to anxiety and depression.

As previously discussed, since this study is a prospective case control study, it does have certain specific strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include that it is good for rare diseases, requires little time to conduct, has the potential of exploring multiple exposures, and is reliably inexpensive. Weaknesses include the reliance on recall or historical data, that temporality can be difficult to establish, and the comparability of cases and controls.

Summary

In summary, reviewing medical research studies can help maximize a student's understanding of biostatistics and its applications. When reviewing these studies, it is important for students to comprehend the type of study used and the potential strengths and weaknesses associated with each study. After this understanding is attained, a student will be able to question the validity of medical research that he or she is reading in an objective manner.

References

What is Cohort Research? (2011). Retrieved April 7, 2011, from Cha Cha: http://www.chacha.com/question/what-is-cohort-research

Randomized Clinical Trial . (2011). Retrieved April 7, 2011, from The Free Dictionary: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/randomized+clinical+trial

{ Comments are closed }