Who Needs A Liver Transplant?

Study shows that liver is the second most transplanted organ in the human body. Liver diseases are becoming more and more common today. It is important however, to understand the various situations under which a transplant transplant may be considered.

Here are some of the most common reasons for a liver transplant:

Chronic Viral Hepatitis B, C, D

Hepatitis is caused by the viral infection that results in inflammation, swelling and cell death. All this leads to liver destruction or scarring. The different types of hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis B is the leading indication of liver cancer worldwide.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

In this type of hepatitis, the body's immune system is not able to recognize it's own liver tissue. It thus begins to injure the liver cells and that finally leads to scarring, liver cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. Unlike chronic viral hepatitis, this disease is not caused by a virus.

Laennec Cirrhosis

Laennec cirrhosis is caused by the toxic effects of excess alcohol. Alcohol abuse can cause great damage to the liver which is one of the leading causes for liver transplants.

Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Fat accumulation in the liver cells causes this disease. It is said that excess alcohol is the main cause of a fatty liver. But this condition is also seen in patients with diabetes and obesity. This condition can cause liver cirrhosis.

Cryptogenic Cirrhosis

Sometimes the liver develops cirrhosis for no apparent reason like alcohol abuse or viral infection etc. This is called cryptogenic cirrhosis.

Biliary Cirrhosis

Sometimes there is a blockage in the bile duct. The liver produces bile which flows from the bile duct to the gall bladder. From here it is slowly released to the small intestine and helps in digesting fats. When the bile duct is blocked, all the bile that is produced accumulates in the liver and causes swelling and ultimately loss of liver function.

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

In this disease, the bile duct becomes progressively damaged by inflammation. This results in scarring that narrows the bile duct and causes obstruction to the flow of bile.

Caroli's Disease

The bile ducts became diluted and results in the formation of cysts or sacks. This causes infection and obstruction of the bile ducts.

Choledochal Cyst

This is a congenital disorder. A choledochal cyst is formed due to a structurally flawed bile duct.

Active Liver Failure

People suffering from acute liver failure caused by other reasons such as viral infection, fatty liver, etc. undergo liver transplant surgery.

Toxic Exposures

Exposure to certain pesticides, herbicides, lead, asbestos and other hazardous pollutants can be the cause of a potentially life threatening disease.

Hepatic tumors

Tumors that spread either from other parts of the body or those that develop in the liver itself can cause serious damage to this organ.

Well, this was a broad discussion of all the conditions that could lead to a liver transplant. Not limited to these, there are several conditions that can be rented at the right center for a liver transplant. Other reasons could include injury from accidents, glycogen storage disease and lots more.

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What Is the Importance of Choosing the Right Medical Gloves?

You may be running a hospital, clinic or a laboratory, it is necessary that you choose the right medical gloves. You would come across various types of medical gloves which you can buy from the market, but there is more to consider than just the price and quantity. You should be emphasizing mainly on the comfort level and protection against all those infectious organisms, toxins and diseases. These gloves prove to be extremely beneficial when it comes to performing any surgery as it lets the healthcare specialists prevent themselves from coming into contact with those contaminants that can be deadly for the body. These gloves have really been playing one of the most important roles, especially when operations or other emergencies are performed.

What are various types of medical gloves?

It is always wise to buy wholesale medical gloves. This is because you never know when you fall short of any of the medical gloves. There are various types of medical gloves that are used by the doctors, nurses, doctors, and medical practitioners for plenty of reasons.

They are mentioned below.

  1. Latex Gloves – Latex gloves are, without a doubt, the most popular type gloves that have increasingly been used for the performing surgeries and those surgeries which involve a high amount of risk. For over 100 years, these gloves have been preferred the most by medical professionals. This is because of the fact that the supple construction of these gloves make the doctors feel that they gloves are like a second skin to them and make easy for them to grab any surgical instruments. This is because that the exterior of these gloves is less sticky. Latex gloves are strong and last for long and they are, in fact, the thickest ones of all gloves. They are made from natural rubber which provides flexibility to the doctors.
  2. Vinyl Gloves – There are reports that state the fact that around 17% of the medical professionals have been affected by those allergies caused by latex gloves, so the use of vinyl gloves has been gaining an immense popularity. This is because of the reason that these gloves are latex free. With the use of these gloves, the environment at the hospitals and clinics has become a safe one for both staff and patients.The medical vinyl gloves are friendly to one's skin and do not cause any allergic reactions as compared to latex ones. You should avoid using these gloves in an environment where the risk is high and the offer a standard a barrier protection. If you think that you may come into contact with the body fluid of the patient which can cause an allergy while performing a surgery involving a high risk, you should not wear these gloves. These gloves are reasonably priced.
  3. Nitrile Gloves – The best part of nitrile gloves is that it prevent the health care workers from coming into contact with a skin reaction. These gloves are strong and do not easily get rips, holes and tears. These really work in harsh conditions and highly preferred by the doctors and nurses. They also work well with lotions.

You should get in touch with a reliable and professional online medical equipment supplier that can provide you wholesale medical gloves at the rate which fits well within your budget. There are lots of genuine suppliers of medical products that have been in the business of supplying the medical equipment for years to clinics, hospitals and medical laboratories.

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Why We Get Sick

Right after a stressful event, or series of events, we get sick. We know it's because we put off being healthy for far too long.

But did you know, it does not need to be like that?

In 2012, I was in a car accident, hurt my back, bought a new car (quickly), bought a house, moved, planned a wedding, married, buried a loved one, help my husband through losing his job and then going back to school, and suddenly becoming in charge of just about everything around the house. Yet, I did not get sick, have my blood pressure go up, I did not lose or gain weight, I toned my muscles, and stayed rested.

Here's the secret:

  1. Maintain a consistent sleep & exercise pattern – bags under your eyes are not attractive and can signal infection and high cholesterol
  2. Stay well hydrated – I know it's easy to forget your water bottle and grab a soda, but your body hates it and it can lead to diabetes
  3. Plan your meals, plus extra for when you need to grab and go – this is how you lose and maintain weight
  4. Avoid coffee, candy, pasta, bread, donuts, and sugary foods – that pesky diabetes just keeps popping up, plus, these depress you immune system and let you get sick quickly
  5. Make sure you have you time – how can you give to everyone else if you have nothing to give?

Stress sucks, but remember, this too will pass. The more you help your body, the less you will feel the stress. The less you feel the stress, the less likely you will get sick.

If you want to support your immune system, typically with herbs, it's easy to do. Just remember, herbs are foods first, medicine second. Never take an herb that can not be ateen safely.

The top herb when you are sick is Echinacea. It's a root that makes a great tea. This herb helps your immune system work more efficiently and powerfully. This is not an herb to take daily, just when you are sick.

Prevention-wise, nothing is more powerful than the triple powers of garlic, ginger, and honey! All three are foods and are perfect for seasoning all types of dishes. As a tea, ginger can also help calm your stomach from all types of upset and indigestion.

And get some sun! It's the most powerful form of vitamin D and it stimulates your hormones to balance out. Just 15 minutes a day can do wonders for your health.

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4 Tips That Help You Find the Right Heart Doctor

Finding a doctor can be a complicated and confusing process. Finding someone that you can trust and build an effective relationship with to manage your health can be difficult, and overwhelming, but it does not have to be. Rather than overwhelm yourself by browsing through the hundreds of thousands of healthcare providers, follow these tips to make sure that the heart doctor you select will be experienced, professional, and make you feel comfortable and confident about your level of care.

1. Use Word of Mouth for Good Leads

One of the first places people often look when searching for a new physician to treat their illnesses and manage their health is online, through an Internet search for local physicians. However, it is often far better to be referred to a doctor through a friend, family member, or co-worker. Often they will be able to not only tell you whether they are a good doctor to go see, but can explain why. For instance, if they had a winning bedside manner, or if they show their patients extra care and attention.

2. Communication is Key

Although there are good doctors and bad doctors, there is one thing within your control that will improve your relationship with your physician and make sure you get the care you deserve, more than any other thing. That is communication. If your physician is unable to communicate with you, or does not fit with your communication style, you may have a hard time getting answers to your questions. You should feel safe and comfortable talking to your doctor about even the most embarrassing bodily issues.

3. Check Credentials

Although you are bound to get great referrals through word of mouth, and some of those referrals will have compatible communications styles with you, it pays to do your due diligence and check out any physician's credentials you may be considering. Your doctor should have a current and active board certification, and is board certified in the area of ​​care you are seeking. If they are not board certified, you should definitely ask why, and maybe consider a different doctor.

4. Finding a Heart Specialist

While the above tips can help you find a general care physician, they can also help you find doctors that cover specific types of care or illnesses. More often than not, you primary care physician will give you a recommendation to a heart-specific doctor, or any other type of doctor you may need. Your primary care doctor is one of your largest assets in finding a great cardiologist, because they already know you, your personality, and the level of care that you need and deserve. This can also help make your life easier, because your doctor can easily share your medical history documents with your cardiac surgeon.

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My Doctor Says I Need Heart Surgery – What Happens Next?

If you have recently been diagnosed with a condition requiring heart surgery, you may be anxious to find out what to expect from your treatment plan. An open heart surgical procedure is any type of surgery where the chest is cut open to allow surgeons to operate on the valves, arteries, and soft muscle tissue of the heart. Typically, this is called traditional heart surgery. However, many operations are performed today through a tiny incision rather than opening the entire chest cavity. Here are a few things to help you know what to expect.

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Is Storing Your DNA Worth It?

Beginning in the late 1980s, an increasing number of hospitals have offered parents the chance to save their babies' umbilical cord blood after birth because of the high amount of stem cells within it. Stem cells, in theory, can help fix damaged tissue or possibly even stop diseases from taking hold.

While blood storage is becoming increasingly common, there are still very few cases of the cord blood actually being used for good. A study completed last year showed that less than twenty successful treatments had been performed in the US However, with increases in science and medicine, we are beginning to see cord blood used in new and exciting ways.

For example, this week in Australia, young Isla Robinson made history by being the first person infected with her own umbilical cord blood in an effort to delay – or hopefully indefinitely prevent – juvenile type-1 diabetes. The theory is that her blood, which is rich in immune cells, will help her immune system to reboot itself and stop attacking its own insulin-producing cells.

As we continue to see advances like this, we will likely see increased adoption of this type of medical information storage. Unfortunately, the costs of blood storage (which can range into the thousands of dollars) make it too expensive for many. Fortunately, there is another great biomedical storage technology that is much, much less expensive. DNA sequencing, or mapping out every single gene in your genetic code, is getting cheap; what cost thousands upon thousands of dollars before before soon be in the hundreds. The accuracy of DNA sequencing is also more precise than before because computer technology is getting both cheaper and faster too. Everyday people like you and me can start saving our DNA samples so that we are prepared for future improvements in medicine.

Companies now give people the chance to store their DNA for as little as $ 2 a month in safe, secure locations. DNA storage makes sure that a complete copy of your code is protected at all times. Since recent studies have shown as much as 90 percent of cancers are caused by genetic mutations, having an early (un-mutated) sample on hand could prove to be a lifesaver – literally. The technology is not here today, but as we're seeing with cord blood, it's only a matter of time before medical research catches up.

Continued technological advances both in genetics research and medicine will only cut down the time for this groundbreaking shift in healthcare to happen.

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The Human Growth Hormone: A Detailed Study

The Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is an endocrine hormone. This hormone is responsible for the growth of our body. Apart from ensuring growth and development of the human body, it increases the power of sexual desires. HGH improves our digestion power. It controls our body fat and ensures a glowing skin. It helps one fight against diseases, increasing his immunity power. The significant part of it is associated with aging and age-related diseases. As it can give us anti-aging potentiality, many pharmacists and medicine producing companies are interested in producing HGH artificially. These are known as the HGH supplements.

HGH is produced by the pituitary gland. This is highly necessary for the maturity of the human body. When we grow older, our pituitary glands gradually stop releasing this hormone. At young age, the secretion rate of this hormone remains higher. The secretion rate becomes lower when a person becomes old. However, the researchers and physiologists say that the secretion of this hormone is essential for the people of all age groups- as it helps them keep their physical functions well. The inadequate secretion of it causes various aging signs like wrinkle skin, gray hair and many like these. They lose their vitality, potentiality and sensual desires. This is why a vast majority of people are interested in buying HGH pills available in the market. These help you stay healthy, fit, and evergreen. These products are sold in the market as Human Growth Hormone supplements. As they can ensure a significant number of health benefits, they are high on demand.

Keeping pace with the demand of these products, the number of manufacturing companies has increased significantly.

Given below are significant health benefits of HGH supplements:

• Improve bone density

• Ensure increased metabolism and muscle mass

• Help in extra fat deduction

• Aid you to lose your weight

• Help you look attractive, young and evergreen

• Improve sperm production power

• Make you potent and fertile

• Prevent hair loss

• Give you a strong memory power.

• Make your immune system stronger.

• Ensure better function of heart, kidney and other organs

You can buy HGH pills over the counter. Having no side effects on human bodies, they are available over the counter. You can buy them online as well. They are available at affordable prices. Buying a popular brand from a reputable store is always advisable. However, you should consult a physician before using it. You should avoid HGH supplements, if you are allergic to these.

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Global Market for Next Generation Sequencing – By Products and End Users

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of Biotechnology and Medicine. Applications of NGS are not only in research but also in diagnostics, pharmaceuticals and forensic science. It is replacing all the traditional technologies such as Microarray and Sanger sequencing. The NGS market has a CAGR of 20% between 2014 and 2020 and is estimated to reach $ 20 billion in 2020. NGS technology has increased the precision of DNA sequencing also making it faster and cost effective. This reduction in cost has made the technology more accessible to the fields of research and healthcare.

The NGS technology not only relays on the advanced instruments but also Reagents and kits and services like the data interpretation and diagnosis. Thus, there is an increasing demand for the products and services associated with NGS contributing to the growth of the submarkets. NGS is widely used in diagnosis of bacterial and viral diseases. NGS has also become popular because of its use in genetic testing to diagnose and predict diseases such as cancer and inherited genetic diseases.

A large investment is being made in the field of medical research by not only Governments but also a number of pharmaceutical companies. Since NGS is one of the important technologies used in most fields of medical and drug research, there is an increasing demand for this technology in research institutes and R & D laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. There is an increasing incidence of diseases like cancer, which requires fast and correct diagnosis for prevention and treatment. In recent years, a global outbreak of bacterial and viral epidemics in is increasing the demand for advanced technologies like NGS in the healthcare setup. These factors are the drivers for the NGS market. The only constraint of this technology is the requirement of skilled professionals to handle the equipment and analyze the data generated. There is also a need for data management services to handle the massive volumes of data generated.

North America holds the largest share of the NGS market because of countries such as USA and Canada which have large healthcare setups and advanced technology. This is closely followed by Europe where countries such as UK, Sweden and Germany also have a big demand for NGS. The fastest growing market is Asia, as countries such as China, India and Japan are making large investments in healthcare and medical research. There is an also increased incidence of epidemic outbreaks in these countries contributing to the growing NGS market.

The key players in the market are Roche Holding Ag, Agilent Technologies, BGI (Beijing Genomic Institute), Qiagen, Illumina Inc., Thermo Fischer Scientific and Pacific Biosciences.

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Effects of Centesimal Potencies in Homeopathy Treatment

In the process of preparation of potencies of the drug substances related to liquid, three scales are made use of. One of these scales is centesimal potency, which comprises of more than 90% medicines used in homeopathy. When the potencies are prepared from the solid substances, mostly a decimal scale is used. The trituration needs to attain a potency of 6x in order to get fit into the category of liquid potency and get treated subsequently. After 6x, when it is converted to liquid dosage form, it is usually prepared in centesimal potency.

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Six Things You Didn’t Know You Could Do At Your Local Pharmacy

Let's be honest. Most of us probably try to spend as little time as possible at the pharmacy. We dread waiting in line to pick up prescriptions, and assume that the professionals working there pretty much only dispense pills and hand over prescriptions. This could not be further from the truth! As time passes and technology advances, pharmacies continue to add more and more services to make their customers' busy lives as easy as possible. Read on for some of the services you may not have known you could get at your local drugstore.

1. Visit Walk-in Clinics

Certainly by now you've seen commercials advertising the non-urgent care clinics that have been set up at pharmacies through the nation. Most of these clinics operate seven days a week, which is great for any minor illnesses that happen over the weekend. It's also incredibly convenient if you need to fill a prescription.

2. Receive Flu Shots and Vaccinations

With the rise of these walk-in clinics, it's also possible for you to now receive your flu vaccine when you drop into the pharmacy to pick up a prescription! Most types of insurance are accepted, and vaccinations are offered for both children and adults. These vaccines include chickenpox, measles / mumps / rubella, and shingles, and hepatitis B.

3. Join Wellness Programs

Are you trying to lose weight, quit smoking, or manage your diabetes? Wellness programs through your pharmacy can help. Ask your pharmacist about getting set up with one of these programs, and make sure to utilize the many diagnostic tests that can be done in-house, like cholesterol and blood sugar tests.

4. Request Flavored Medicines

If you've ever tried to get a child to take a liquid medicine, then you know how hard it is to convince them that this nasty-tasting spoonful really is for their own good. Luckily, many pharmacies offer added flavorings for little to no charge. Whether you want sour apple, bubble gum, watermelon, or cherry, a dash of flavor can make the process easier for both you and your child. More grown-up flavors, such as crème de menthe, are also available for adults taking liquid medicines.

5. Get Personalized Packaging

Although you probably have not given it much thought, personalized packaging can ease a lot of your worries when it comes to medication mix-ups or accidents. You can request larger-print labels for those with vision problems to ensure that they never take the wrong medicine or childproof caps so your toddlers can not get into any prescriptions that could make them sick.

6. Join Rewards Programs

Most pharmacies offer some sort of reward program that allows you to earn benefits for the money you spend there. The money you save can go towards paying for your other medical needs, whether it's co-pays on prescriptions or first aid supplies. Some stores even offer extra points for getting immunizations.

So the next time you're at your local pharmacy, look around to make sure that you're getting all you can from it. There is much more to offer than just a quick prescription refill!

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Antibiotic Resistance – Why Antibiotics Do Not Work For Some People

A lot of people who are taking antibiotics often times develop a resistance. One of the main reasons behind this is that these people do not know how to use these kinds of medications properly. It leads to antibiotic resistance. Basically, antibiotic resistance is the capability of certain microorganisms to develop a resistance to antibiotic drugs. This is a type of drug resistance that happens to people taking antibiotics.

Naturally, the condition develops through a natural process of mutation. However, there are ways that will give way for this type of resistance to be engineered. There are different factors that must be known with regards to the resistance of a person to antibiotics. This has become a major health problem for people suffering from various ailments. In the past 60 years, there were different antibiotic drugs that have been created. It is a must to understand that antibiotics depend on the selection of the bacterial resistance.

It is a must to know that there are contributing factors that will lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The evolution of the microorganisms has made way for a person suffering from a certain diseases not to gain any advantage when taking antibiotic drugs. That said, the causes of antibacterial drug resistance should be known.

What Are The Major Causes Of Antibiotic Resistance To The People?

One of the causes of resistance to antibiotics is mutation. Every few hours, microbes tend to reproduce. This gives them the chance to rapidly multiply and adapt to their new host environment. However, in between these changes, mutation will rise. This helps a microbe to survive an antibiotic attack, which gives it the resistance it needs to battle the treatment.

Another reason why people develop resistance to antibiotics is their way of using it. Misuse of antibiotics may lead to the resistance of the microorganisms the treatment needs to get rid of. Also, there are times when a healthcare provider gives insufficient information on how to use the treatment. That said, patients do not have enough knowledge about the intake of an antibiotic, including the dosage and the time.

How To Prevent The Resistance To Antibiotics?

If you want to avoid any resistance to antibiotics, be sure to seek help from your doctor. This enables you to discuss all the specific medicine for your health condition. Plus, you will likewise know the proper dosage. These factors can help you avoid antibiotic resistance, and continue getting the benefits of the drugs you are using.

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ACEIs and Coughs – Managing the Blood Pressure Manager

The body's stress response system is a powerful chain reaction of enzymes, proteins, and neurotransmitters, enabling it to respond to emergencies or danger. Renin (from the kidney) changes angiotensinogen (from the liver) into a protein, angiotensin 1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (from the lungs) changes the protein into angiotensin 2 which causes blood vessels to contract and speeds the heart rate. But what benefits the body in a crisis can harm it in the long run.

A steady supply of angiotensin 2 leads to high blood pressure (hypertension). In the 1960s, ACE inhibitors were developed to prevent the formation of angiotensin 2. It causes the heart rate to slow and blood vessels to relax, enabling blood to safely flow through the body. This removes unnecessary stress from the heart and kidneys, allowing them to function as they should.

ACEI Cough

Side effects are common among all drug classes. Common to ACEIs are swelling of tissue below the skin (angioedema) and a dry cough. ACE inhibitor cough occurs in less than 20 percent of those taking ACEIs, primarily blacks and women. Nitric oxide, anti-inflammatories, iron, and other treatments may be used to treat ACEI cough. Although not effective for all sufferers, a switch to another drug class, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), has been beneficial for many. It has the added advantage of providing protection for the kidneys.

Angioedema

The second-most common side effect of taking an ACEI is a swapping of tissue below the skin, mostly the tongue, throat, lips, and cheeks. The swing could become quite enough to close the throat. Adequate time to monitor and treat the swapping is possible in general because the swapping occurs over a period of hours. A previous episode of angioedema and race (black), are the two largest risk factors; smoking, gender (women), and increased age are less ones. Diabetics taking a drug class called gliptins are also at risk. A person can go many years before experiencing this problem; it has often been mistaken for an allergic reaction to food. However, with increased awareness, doctors are more likely to make the connection between the two. The current wisdom is to switch to something else – most likely an ARB – for blood pressure management.

Conclusion

The way ACEI affects a compound that also relaxes blood vessels, bradykinin , seems to be the common factor in ACEI cough and angioedema. While a new drug class is being readied to address that interference, sufferers are best served now by being informed patients. Effective communication between patient and physician is critical to properly identifying and treating ACE inhibitor cough and angioedema. The result is a cough-free, edema-free patient who manages their health well.

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ACEIs

  • Monopril (fosinopril)
  • Capoten (captopril)
  • Altace (ramipril)
  • Univasc (moexipril)
  • Prinivil, Zestril (lisinopril)
  • Accupril (quinapril)
  • Vasotec (enalapril)
  • Mavik (trandolapril)
  • Lotensin (benazepril)
  • Aceon (perindopril)

May be combined with thiazides, drugs that increase urination ( diuretics ).

  • Uniretic (hydrochlorothiazide / moexipril)
  • Zestoretic (hydrochlorothiazide / lisinopril)
  • Accuretic (hydrochlorothiazide / quinapril)
  • Prinzide (hydrochlorothiazide / lisinopril)
  • Capozide (captopril / hydrochlorothiazide)
  • Lotensin HCT (benazepril / hydrochlorothiazide)
  • Monopril HCT (fosinopril / hydrochlorothiazide)
  • Quinaretic (hydrochlorothiazide / quinapril)
  • Vaseretic (enalapril / hydrochlorothiazide)

They can also be combined with calcium channel blockers , a drug class that keeps the heart from working too hard and blood vessels from contracting by reducing absorption of calcium.

  • Tarka (trandolapril / verapamil)
  • Teczem (diltiazem / enalapril)
  • Amlobenz or Lotrel (amlodipine / benazepril)
  • Lexxel (enalapril / felodipine)

ARBs

  • Teveten (eprosartan)
  • Benicar (olmesartan)
  • Edarbi (azilsartan medoxomil)
  • Micardis (telmisartan)
  • Cozaar (losartan)
  • Diovan (valsartan)
  • Atacand (candesartan)
  • Avapro (irbesartan)

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What You Need To Know If You Are To Have A Shoulder Replacement

Today individuals have the option of considering joint replacement when osteo arthritis or trauma has damaged the joint to the point where movement becomes unbearably painful. Shoulder replacement surgery may be considered if pain keeps an individual from activities that enjoy or make daily living activities very difficult.

The shoulder joint is considered one of the more complex joints in the body. There are three bones which form the joint and are held together by tendons and ligaments. The scapula, clavicle and humorous combined together at the shoulder to provide 360 ​​° motion for the upper arm. The joint is unique because the ball in the upper arm is two times larger than the socket in the shoulder blade. This means that the joint is highly mobile and gives individuals a greater range of motion but it also means that there is an intensive number of ligaments and muscles necessary to keep the joint together.

In most cases joint replacement or resurfacing will be considered because of arthritis and the damage changes to the joint surfaces. The symptoms of osteo arthritis of the shoulder are pain and reduced movement. Most individuals report that this pain is a severe in nature and can make it very difficult for patients to sleep. Because the joint surfaces have begun to degenerate certain movements may also cause a grinding sensation or at catching sensation as the bone moves against bone. While there may be swelling it will be difficult to see it because there is so much muscle which covers the shoulder joint.

Diagnosing osteo arthritis of the shoulder will include a complete medical history by your healthcare practitioner followed by a thorough physical examination. Your health practitioner may attempt to reproduce the pain or the catching with certain movements while simultaneously holding their hand over the shoulder joint to palpate any excess movement and the shoulder. X-rays may show a degree of change in the bones and any wear and tear present and an MRI or arthrogram may be used to confirm the diagnosis.

During an arthrogram special dye is injected into the shoulder joint and x-rays are taken to determine the path of the dye. An MRI can be used to look at the rotator cuff tendons to determine whether they are torn. This is a special test where magnetic waves are used to create pictures which look like slices of the body. This information is fed back to a computer which helps to pull the information together for the radiologist.

When considering joint replacement individuals actually have two different options. The first option is joint resurfacing of the humoral head. This is a surgical procedure that allows the individual to retain more of their natural tissue by replacing only the injured part of the joint instead of the entire shoulder. This gradual approach may mean that the patient has an option for total joint replacement later if it becomes necessary.

The Resurfacing Humoral Head Implant is an option for patients who are younger and more active and who may otherwise poseone surgery because of the limitations involved with a total shoulder joint replacement. Patients who have arthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis or fractures of the humoral head are all candidates for this implant. During this procedure the implant is fitted onto the top of the humoral bone which preserves most of the patient's own tissue.

This resurfacing procedure will give pain relief at earlier stages of joint disease while still allowing individuals to consider a total replacement later. This is a conservative approach for youngger patients because it replaces only the damaged tissue and allows for greater range of motion. Candidates for resurfacing products may have arthritic damage and humoral head fractures but not rotator cuff tears. These implants are not intended for use in people who have local infections or have poor bone quality.

If the total shoulder replacement has been chosen physicians actually have several options which they can consider in order to improve the functionality of the joint and decrease the pain for the individual. Total shoulder joint replacements will also be considered for individuals who have rotator cuff tears or massive shoulder fractures as well as those who have had damage from osteoarthritis or a fractured humoral head.

Physicians today have a greater range of options to offer patients who suffer from debilitating pain in their shoulder joints. These options allow patients to return to their previous lifestyle often without pain

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Bio Tech Venture Investing – Novel Drug Discovery Versus Repurposing and Reformulation

I recently reviewed a white paper by David Thomas, CFA and Chad Wessel of Bio Industry Analysis entitling Venture Funding of Therapeutic Innovation A Comprehensive Look at a Decade of Venture Funding of Drug R & D, published in February 2015. In this excellent paper covered a number of different topics and trends, but for this article, I would like to focus on one. They point out that over the past ten years, nearly 80% of venture capital for therapeutics went toward “novel drug R & D” as opposed to improvements on existing drugs (eg, new formulas, repurposing, drug delivery, etc.

The percentage of de novo investments compared to repurposing or reformulations would not surprise me if the group the study was analyzing was the venture arm of large pharma. However, this is astounding to me when you think of the financial rigor normally associated with the venture community. De novo drug discovery is simply a bad bet. Here are the latest metrics – $ 1.7 billion cost, 12 to 15 years, 1 in 10,000 compounds makes it and only 1 in 3 compounds that are commercialized recover their original investment.

Compare that with the far superior metrics for repositioning. Because your universe of drug candidates is drugs already treating another disease in humans, you eliminate or severely reduce the safety and toxicity component of the trial process. Since the drugs are already known you eliminate the 4.5 years and $ 674 million on average for the discovery process. Now if you can identify the best candidates with precision and supply the companion diagnostics for safety, toxicity, efficiency and patient stratification you can remove several years and hundreds of $ millions compared to de novo.
There has been to be a reason that big pharma and this universe of very savvy investors have seriously ignored this seemingly superior bet. In hearing the objections in the marketplace, my conclusion is that they are operating under four misperceptions.

1. We can only get method of use patents and that is not sufficient to provide us the period of exclusivity commensurate with this sizable investment. A: We can argu the composition of matter versus the method of use patent protection issue until the cows come home, but let's just let the numbers do the talking: 1/4 of the total drug marketplace is comprised of repurposed drugs. Examples of Repurposed Blockbusters -include:

-Tecfidera (Biogen) – Multiple Sclerosis $ 2.91 Billion (2014)
-Rituxan (Biogen) – Rheumatoid Arthritis $ 1.2 Billion (2013)
-Viagra (Pfizer) – Erectile Dysfunction $ 2.05 Billion (2008)

2. Generics prescribed off-label will limit our pricing power and our market share potential. A: this is simply not supported by the facts. A simple reformulation of a repositioned drug will make it immune to off-label prescribing. In the many examples of successful repositioned drugs, the availability of a generic has had very limited impact on its pricing or market share for the new indication. The pricing mechanisms in the market do not distinguish between a de novo drug and a repositioned drug.

3. It costs “about the same” to take a repurposed drug through the commercialization process as it does a de novo discovery. As shown above, you simply eliminate much of the process (discovery, tox). Also the FDA has recently approved the use of remote monitoring in running clinical trials especially when it involves a repurposed drug. Estimates are as high as an 80% reduction in clinical trials cost by fully implementing this approach. The more precision you can provide in the areas of companion diagnostics for toxicity, efficiency, and patient stratification, the faster and cheaper you can bring a repurposed drug to market.

4. The approaches used in drug repositioning do not provide sufficient precision and systematic repeatability in order for us to invest in this strategy. This was true until the introduction of a technique called high throughput knowledge screening. It is a Big Data play on researching the research pioneered by a company called CureHunter. By adding this final puzzle piece to the other advantages of repositioning, it makes the investment thesis for repositioning even more compelling.

The market is just beginning to embrace this significant risk / reward advantage, but it is not the giant pharmaceutical or bio tech companies (although Celgene repositions their new drugs while still in the clinical trials process for the original indication). Rather it is the smaller nimble bio techs that develop a repurposed candidate, form a drug / disease specific subsidiary, move the drug through phase 1 and limited phase 2 trials, and then sell the subsidiary to a large pharmaceutical or bio tech company. It will probably take a series of small company successes before the big players start to pursue this strategy in earnest. Once that gate opens we will see a resounding level of drug pipeline growth, more rapid drug introduction, more favorable pricing and choices for the patients.

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7 Tips for Talking With Your Family Medicine Doctor

Getting the best possible care for you and your family means taking an active role in the proceedings. Finding a family doctor and knowing how to communicate with that medical professional and the office staff. We have 7 tips for talking with your family doctor that will improve your health care overall.

Talk to Your Doctor

This might sound like common sense, it is important to share any information you can with your doctor, even if it is embarrassing. Hospitals often give the following information during the exam:

• Any symptoms you are having
• Your health history. It is said that keeping a “health journal” is a good idea. This is something you can bring to your appointments because it is often difficult to remember everything you have done.
• Be prepared to share personal information such as feeling stressed or if you are going through a life-changing event.
• Bring any medications you are currently taking. That way you do not have to remember the names of medicines and how much strength they contain.
• Any vitamins or supplements you take
• Any X-rays, tests results or medical records you have.

Ask Lots of Questions

There are no stupid questions when dealing with your health. Doctors say that they want to have too much information then having too little. Get in the habit of asking every time you do not understand something. Even have them written down before you go to your appointment.

Set Goals for the Conversation

Even before having a discussion with your doctor, it is said that it's best to think about the outcome. Diagnosing and treating your ailment takes time so putting your concerns on the table and working with your doctor to determine a plan to address those concerns will be best.

Keep Information At Home

The information given to you by doctors and nurseurs should be kept where you can get to it if there is a question about your health. Your doctor is a good source of accurate information you can trust. If you are unsure of written instruction, bring along a tape recorder. Ask your doctor if it is okay to tape your appointment.

Follow Up, Follow Up, Follow Up

Many people often feel that they are bothering a doctor when they want to share how things are going in their care. If you are confused or have forgotten information, it is okay to contact your doctor. It is said that waiting can only make your ailment worse if you are feeling pain.

Doctors Can not Read Your Mind

Do not assume your family doctor who has seen you more than a few times to know exactly what's wrong all the time. Always be willing to share as much as you can, even after you have become very comfortable with the doctor.

Bring Someone to Appointment

It is always helpful to have a second set of ears. They may also be ale to think of questions or remember details you have forgotten.

Remember to check with your doctor before taking any treatment or medical remedy.

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