Hernia Treatment Without Surgery Is Becoming Widespread

Generally, hernia requires surgery. But, these days, hernia treatment without surgery is becoming widespread. Yoga hernia exercises are useful for hernia treatment without surgery because it is found that over 30% hernia surgery patients end up with pain and discomfort afterwards. Inserting a foreign net can cause complications later in your 30 to 40 years of post-operation life. Instead of immediate surgery, you can try out gentle yogic stretching in static and dynamic form. This is good for gradually strengthening weak muscle muscles as it supplies an abundant amount of oxygenated blood that nourishes, activates, tones and strengntens. This in turn improves muscle tensile strength which prevent displacement of internal organs. Exercising as a solution for hernia will also safeguard that the hernia does not recur in the adjacent area.

You can ask a physical therapist for guidance on exercises that fit your unique condition as patient education & training are key factors in the overall process of physiotherapy treatment. Hernia treatment without surgery will need 1 to 3 months of committed effort and patience to heal.

Piles
Piles are typically inflamed and swollen collections of tissue in the anal area. They can be of any sizes and may be internal or external. Piles are usually caused by increased pressure in the lower rectum. The blood vessels around the anus and in the rectum generally stretch under pressure and may swell, thus forming piles. The symptoms of piles are:
• Hard stool and constipation,
• Diarrhea and frequent bowel movements.

Doctors usually diagnose piles after carrying out some physical examinations like digital rectal examination or colonoscopy.

In most cases, piles dissolve on their own without the need for any treatment. But, some piles become severe. Read on to discover some piles treatment that will help significantly to reduce the discomfort and itching.

1. Diet – Diet change is a must to keep the stools regular and soft. This means you need to eat more fiber, such as fruit and vegetables or bran-based breakfast cereals. You should increase water consumption.
2. Body weight – Exercising and losing weight help in reducing the severity of piles.
3. Medicines – Over-the-counter medications like painkillers, ointments, creams, and pads help to soothe redness and swelling around the anus. Corticosteroids drugs can reduce inflammation and pain. Laxatives are prescribed if a person with piles suffers from constipation.
4. Surgery – An elastic band is placed around the base of the pile, cutting off its blood supply. In sclerotherapy, medicine is injected to make the hemorrhoid shrink. Infrared coagulation is a device that is used to burn the hemorrhoid tissue. The excess tissue that is causing the bleeding can be surgically removed. Hemorrhoid stapling is done to block the blood flow to the hemorrhoid tissue. Laser surgery is the latest technique for treating piles.

So, multispecialty hospitals have well known doctors for piles treatment where you can get yourself completely cured.

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Understanding Arthroscopy Surgery

Arthroscopy can be the solution to many types of arthritis and various injuries within the joint. Also called as key hole surgery, it is the minimally invasive procedure used to examine the inside structure of the joint for the diagnosis and treatment.

The instrument used for this is called arthroscopy. The surgeons can view the area using the video monitor to diagnose and treat the joint tissues. Majorly all the joints in the body can be examined using the arthroscopy. Apart from examining the joint if any other procedure is performed using this, we call it arthroscopic surgery. This kind of surgeries requires less recovery times and pain. The tissue trauma will also be minimum. Because of the benefits, it offers arthroscopy is becoming essential for many orthopedic surgeries.

In the arthroscopy procedure, there is no blood loss expected and will have no or minimal complications. Only small incisions are made to examine and insert the arthroscopy. There is no need for opening the joint fully. The incisions are reliably very small and should be maintained dry for a few days. And after the surgery, the patients need to stay for little time in the hospital will be recommended different exercises for strengthening the joints.

As said above, arthroscopy is considered in treating many types of arthritis like non-inflammatory and inflammatory. For example, patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have isolated joint swelling can be benefited with this by removing the inflamed joint tissue and examining it to discover any type of infections. This helps the doctors get more information where the diagnosis is difficult just by analyzing joint fluid alone for treatment.

Arthroscopy is also used for treating many knee joint injuries like ligament strains, meniscustears, posterior cruciate ligament, ligament strains etc; not only to treat knee joints and arthritis, arthroscopy is also considered to treat and examine many hips, wrist, feet, spine, ankle and elbow conditions. The arthroscopy is used to treat the wide range of sports injuries involving hips, wrists, ankles, and elbows as well.

Using arthroscopic procedures we can treat spinal conditions like spinal deformity, tumors, spinal trauma, spinal disc herniation and degenerative discs.

The common conditions we treat using arthroscopy include shoulder dislocations, infection in knee, shoulders, elbows, and ankles, unstable shoulders, cartilage tears, rotator cuff tears, arthritis and shoulder joint degeneration, shoulder capsule release, cartilage tears and many more.

Arthroscopy surgery is generally performed by orthopedic surgeons. Even though it is a low risk surgery it is highly recommended to get it done by the expert surgeons for the speedy recovery and complete results. So considering arthroscopy over traditional surgery to treat any of the above conditions will assure the patients less pain, minimal complications and faster recovery.

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Healthcare Scenario of Bangalore

HEALTH SERVICES IN Bengaluru

The health-care scene in Bengaluru city is a mix of plenty and scarcity. A number of government bodies and schemes provide health services. In infrastructure terms, if all primary health facilities maintained by different government bodies were combined, there are likely to be enough centers to 2 Health care in Bengaluru city – need for a participatory, comprehensive health plan meeting the primary care needs of the population. The city is also host to autonomous institutions with high caliber medical professionals, such as National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience (NIMHANS) and the Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology. Further, like in other urban areas, a huge private sector caters to the health needs of the population.

Bengaluru is a hub for medical tourism, with super-specialty hospitals featuring state-of-the-art treatment facilities. On the other hand, the communities that particularly need public health services, such as the urban poor and working classes, are unable to access them due to the shortage of medical staff, lack of medicines and diagnostic services, high levels of corruption and the low sensitivity towards their needs. They end up using the private sector, which is an expensive option, or postpone essential health care – an even more expensive option for which the individual, family and society pay a price. There have been cases of women delivering babies at home or in auto-rickshaws as they were turned away at Maternity Homes and did not have time to reach a secondary or tertiary institution, or the resources to get there. Tertiary care is expensive even in government hospitals due to bed charges, medicines and other expenses. The result is high levels of indebtedness and health indicators among the urban poor that are almost as bad as the rural poor.

Government hospitals have a few advantages over private hospitals, which make them better and efficient for patients. This includes their facilities are affordable in cost, which is an advantage for the masses, who can not afford expensive treatments. Best doctors are majorly found in the southern part of India. Bengaluru has a few government hospitals that make them stand out in other private ones.

In order to make health care available to the weaker sections of society Bengaluru is dotted with numerous government hospitals. Most of the government hospitals in Bengaluru are run and managed by the municipal corporation of the city. The government hospitals in Bengaluru are usually multi-specialty hospitals

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Regenerative Medicine and the Thymus Gland

In the field of modern medicine, debilitating musculoskeletal injuries are becoming less of a threat to long-term vitality thanks to advances in knowledge of the body's own intrinsic recuperative mechanisms. Now, increasing awareness about the body's own healing processes has revealed a vital but still poorly understood regenerative mechanism initiated by the thymus gland. While still undergoing study, clinical research has revealed its function in physiological protection and regeneration. Proteins produced by the thymus gland play key roles in rehabilitation and recuperation from all types of musculoskeletal injury.

Thymus proteins are produced naturally by the thymus gland early in life, with most production ceasing before the sunset of puberty. Also referred to as Tβ4, they exhibit a myriad of cellular functions that assist the repair and recovery of wounded tissue. These include the enhancement of new blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), cell migration, stem cell differentiation, and gene expression. When the body sufferers a physical injury (for example, a torn quadriceps), these proteins are found in greater concentrations near the wounded area, where they facilitate healing through the aforementioned mechanisms. Clinical studies have shown them to consistently facilitate the healing and recovery of damaged bodily tissue.

For instance, a 1999 study published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology found that the thymus gland accelerates wound healing through the process of angiogenesis. Researchers observed that treated subjects 'wounds contracted by a minimum of 11% more than control subjects' wounds by the one week mark. Although the study was conducted on rats, the researchers concluded that the thymus gland was a wound treating factor with multiple activities.

Further, a 2014 study in the Journal of Orthopedic Research showed that the thymus gland was able to enhance bone fraction healing in mice test subjects. The study found that treated mice had a 41% increase in peak force to failure and had up to 26% more new mineralized tissue than the control group. Importantly, researchers noted that the findings of their study indicated that thymus proteins played a key role in the healing of bone fractures.

Moreover, additional studies have demonstrated that thymus proteins have potent anti-inflammatory effects as well. A 1999 study published in Nature Medicine sent to explore the action mechanisms of Tβ4 as anti-inflammatory agents. After the study's conclusion, researchers noted that the thymus may have far-reaching effects on the body's inflammatory processes.

Certainly, research on the thymus gland's healing mechanisms may have a beneficial impact on our knowledge of the body's regenerative processes. Again, though still in the early phases, clinical study to this point has shown the thymus gland to be a key part of the body's natural recuperative mechanisms. Currently, several research centers are invested in further clinical study to yield greater knowledge of the thymus gland.

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Beyond Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy in its simplest definition is the smelling of vapours for health & well-being effects, howsoe gained. This article examines a cross-section of the art and proposals a future course of direction for those professionals not wishing to be tarred with an aromatherapy brush.

Of course the fragrance of a nice perfume will leave you in a better frame of mind than the smell of rotting cadavers. The general intuitive appeal of a nice smell (etc) has launched a blind universal hype on essential oils, the mainstay of aromatherapy. Over the years it has attracted a large following of uncritical persons eager to believe good news. By contrast it has produced research well beyond the scope of aromatherapy.

Much opposition has been leveled against the wild claims that border on or even cross the line of fraud. Where there's money to be made, there is opportunism. The truth is often the first casualty.

Then there is the medical profession. They are the stalwarts to uphold and defend the medical truth. Unfortunately there is opportunity to denigate the practice of aromatherapy for motives other than altruism, leaving academia to the rescue. Disappointingly, much academic research is in effect unavailable to the general public as good research papers can be expensive.

Deserved or otherwise, alternative medicines such as Acupuncture, Ayurveda, Chiropractic, Homeopathy, Kinesiology, Light Therapy, Phrenology, etc. have been slow to gain traction in mainstream medicine. Within each field there may be something worthwhile. There is risk of throwing the baby out with bathwater.

Aromatherapy by semantic definition is in lockstep with things smelled, the nose being completely equipped to perceive things smelled. Thus aromatherapy armoury consistors sole of essential oils. “Essential” not because we can not live without them but because essential is merely the adjective from the noun “essence” being a vapor from a liquid at a low boiling point.

This semantic deception taken together with people such as those involved in routinely claiming these potions to cure things like ADHD, arthritis, high cholesterol, lupus, asthma, migraines, cancer, fibromyalgia confuses even more. It is there, on offer, all without the rigors of scientific validation. Long Live The Placebo!

Then there are the others making ambiguous claims that leave lots of wiggleroom such as “cleanses air of negative energies”, “restoring harmony and balance between the mind and body”, “restore psychic energy flow”, “return to one's center and chakra” . These and more have become aromatherapy's articles of faith in some circles. Most are seen as nonsense to the mind changed in scientific methods.

Contrast these with Moss et al in the peer-reviewed paper “Aromas Of Rosemary And Lavender Essential Oils Differently Affect Cognition And Mood In Healthy Adults” where they showed the efficacy of Lavender and Rosemary oils. 144 persons took part in the study and no one was informed of the study nature. Before and after inhalation tests included 15 words to be flashed on a screen for 1 second and participants were asked to remember as many words as they could in the space of 60 seconds. More tests were done using 20 photographs enabling researchers to test recall and reaction time.

Nominal recall improved from 5.5 for the control group to 6.2 for the Rosemary and showed little change for the Lavender. Nominal reaction time improved from a score of 246 for the control group to 259 for the Lavender. Little change was reported for the Rosemary tests. They concluded that essential oils can significantly affect aspects of cognitive performance.

Worth considering is a paper by Sayorwan et al, who, using electroencephalography (EEG), measured the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate before and after Rosemary oil inhalation by uniformed groups of subjects and controls. Their findings provided evidence that brain wave activities, autonomous nervous system responses, and mood states could all be modified with Rosemary oil inhalation.

Aromas may well have a placebo effect and as such it is a good thing. However it is not the smell that gives essential oils their efficiency but the compounds that combine the oils. Compounds such as Eugenol, Carvacrol, Thymol, Geraniol, and Menthol appear to stimulate while Linalool appears to calm or relax. Then there is Eugenol, a very powerful antioxidant as well. These compounds can enter the bloodstream via the olfactory system and the lungs through breathing. The bloodstream can also be fed through the skin by massage and contact patches. Other possible routes are ingestion and intravenous injections. The latter are subject to much more research than currently appearing in the literature.

In conclusion, the subject of essential oils is there before a much wider field, rich with potential discovery. Thus it is important that practitioners who prescribe the use of essential oils in their practice divest themselves of any stigma that has grown around aromatherapy. A whole new name for their practice would help to distance themselves from any hint of quackery and dogma.

The general public may well be skeptical as a result of conflicting opinions. The misnomer “essential” does not help. Volatile Oil Therapy (VOT) as a name may engender some trust especially if the practitioners of VOT define themselves to proven effects.

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An Analgesic Pill a Day Keeps the Chills and Aches Away

Over The Counter (OTC) Analgesics or painkillers are drugs that act at different levels of the pain transmission pathway. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and many others act peripherally, while some others agents, such as opioids act on the central nervous system (CNS). While anticonvulsants act on neurogenic pain, muscle relaxants act on pain due to muscle spasm. These analgesics are helpful in pain management; however, they also have adverse effects.

The reasons for the growth of the OTC analgesics market

· Increasing demand for topical analgesics, which are available as pain-relieving creams, lotions, rubs, gels, and sprays. This has increased the sale of analgesics by 18%, according to Kline Nonprescription Drugs USA report.

· Increasing global geriatric population is expected to generate higher demand for pain relief products. In the United States, about 23% of the people were expected to cross 55 years of age in 2015.

· Product innovation to improve performance, in terms of speed and strength, and further, improve the length of the effect.

· Cost saving, as there would be no need to visit a doctor / physician. It is estimated that the US healthcare system saves USD 6-7 for every USD 1 spent on OTC medicines.

However, anything in excess can take a toll and it is no different with OTC analgesics. The common side-effects include constipation, drowsiness, dizziness, upset stomach, heart attack or stroke. These drugs can cause serious changes in the brain and body. Long-term use of painkillers increases addiction and dependence on the drugs. In the United States, painkillers are the second most aborted substances, after marijuana. Pain, in some form or the other, is part of one's daily life, hence, the need for painkillers.

A report by a market research firm estimates a double-digit growth rate for the Global OTC Analgesics Market, estimated to become a market worth USD 20.79 billion by 2022.

The OTC analgesics market is driven by the better performance of premium-priced branded products as compared to generic OTC analgesics.

Hurdles for the market include:

Uncontrolled prescription of opioids, drug abuse, and unregulated government policies are acting as hurdles for this market.

The Way Ahead:

Innovation in OTC analgesics, like absorption dimension that drives a fast action of analgesics, improved performance, multi-action of analgesics, and high specialization in reducing symptoms of specific ailments, are expected to drive market in the future. Availability of various analgesic drugs in online, owed to increasing number of online pharmacies, is driving the OTC analgesics market.

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Journey of a Drug: Design to Market Seller

Where do the medicines we take from chemists come from? How do the doctors know which drug is good for which disease? How the medicines really are able to cure a particular ailment they have been prescribed for? Do these questions come to your mind, when you buy any medicine?

Come, let us today know about the medicine development from the beginning …

The development of medicine is called a Clinical Research and has different Phases. Phases of the clinical research are the steps of experiments with a health intervention in an attempt to find enough evidence for a process which the scientists think would be helpful in medical treatment.

The pharmaceutical study starts its journey from a drug design and drug molecule discovery which further progresses into animal testing and then human studies to see the drug's effectiveness.

Drug undergoes many trials- Preclinical, Phase 0, Phase I, II, III and IV. Sometimes combined trials are also undertaken to reduce the time of development, such as Phase I / II and II / III.

Pre-Clinical Study

When the drug molecule is identified, it undergoes many in vitro ( test tube or cell culture ) and in vivo ( animal ) experiments. These experiments are conducted to know the preliminary efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of the various doses of the drug. Many drug molecules are designed at a time and these pre-clinical studies let the pharmaceutical companies decide which molecule has a greater potential in further studies.

Design of the Studies:

Trials are always conducted by following the set of steps, called the protocol, developed by the researchers to find the specific questions related to the medical product. Information from the prior studies become the base for the researchers to develop research questionnaire and objectives:

  • Participant selection
  • Number of participants
  • Duration of the study
  • Controlled or not
  • How and what dosage will be given
  • What and when the data will be collected
  • Review and analysis time

Phase 0 Study

It is also called micro-dosing trials, 10-15 human subjects are taken and single sub-therapeutic doses are administered to gather the pharmacokinetic ( PK ) data of the drug. This enables the company in deciding to go or no go for the further development of the drug, based on more relevant human data instead of animal data.

Such trials exceeded the speed of promoting drug development by establishing whether or not the drug acts on humans as expected in pre-clinical studies.

After the company decides to take the molecule of the drug forward in development, it will have to submit the data of its preliminary studies to the FDA called Investigational New Drug ( IND ) application filing.

Phase I Study

Also called First-in-man studies as these are the first stage of human testing studies. These are the studies which are designed to determine the maximum dose that can be administrated without showing adverse effects.

Contract Research Organizations ( CROs ) conduct such studies in the clinical trial clinics where medical staff provides full-time attention to 2-100 healthy subjects encompassed for the study and collects the data.

These studies determine the safety ( pharmacovigilance ), tolerability, pharmacokinetics ( PK ) and pharmacodynamics ( PD ) of the drug. The design of Phase I studies is dose-ranged also called dose escalation studies conducted in controlled clinics called Central Pharmacological Units ( CPUs ).

Usually, healthy subjects are hired but sometimes terminally ill patients like of cancer and HIV and also those who have already tried and failed to improve on existing medications.

There are two divisions for Phase I study:

Phase Ia: Single ascending dose

Phase Ib: Multiple ascending dose

Phase II Study

More than 100 diseased subjects are enrolled for a longer period study, to know the benefits of the drug along with its safety which includes genetic testing. These studies are also called as “Proof of Concept or Pilot” studies.

This is the phase when the drug's development can fail due to toxicity or less than expected results.

Two divisions of this phase are:

Phase IIa: Pilot study, to determine the clinical efficiency or the biological activity.

Phase IIb: Dose-finding study, to check the biological activity with minimal side-effects.

A combined trial determining the efficiency as well as toxicity are Phase I / II trials.

Phase III Study

These are pre-registration trials means the data of this study is submitted to the regulatory agency through New Drug Application (NDA) for its registration. Also called Pre-marketing or Pivotal trials.

Such studies are multicentral, randomized, in large diseased population ( more than 500 ) with much longer duration of treatment and short follow up period, to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of the drug.

Even if the regulatory submission is pending, the drug is received by the patients in case it's a lifesaving drug until the drug can be purchased.

'Label expansion' that is drug can treat an additional disease, other than the disease for which the drug is already approved, may also be the reason for running the Phase III trial.

It is said that for the FDA ( United States Food and Drug Administration ) and MHRA ( United Kingdom's Medicines and Health products Regulatory Agency ) needs at least two trials of successful trials data to register the drug.

After these trials, the drug is approved for market selling.

Phase IV Study

These are Post Market Safety Monitoring studies done after the drug is registered. Also called Late Phase or Confirmatory trials.

This kind of study determines the long-term adverse effects on the much larger population for a very long duration (at least 2 years). If harmful effects are detected in this study, then the drug is disapproved and the company has to retrieve the drug from the market as it can no longer be sold.

The entire journey of the drug from a molecule to a market selling product takes around 15-20 years.

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Knowing More About Injections for Low Back Pain

Dealing with lower back pain can be tough for some patients. At times, the pain is hard to manage, and painkillers might not be the right solution. Depending on the facts of the case, doctors may use epidural steroid injections. In this post, we will discuss some of the aspects of such injections in detail.

What's an epidural steroid injection?

The use of injections for low back pain is limited to certain cases, but this is certainly one of the many ways to treat chronic pain. An epidural steroid injection essentially contains an anesthetic drug for pain relief with a corticosteroid. For the uninitiated, corticosteroid is a form of steroids known to have anti-inflammatory benefits. The injection helps in decreasing the pressure from the nerves and surrounding areas and muscles, which can offer considerable respite, while the painkiller ensures immediate relief. Corticosteroids may work independently for pain relief, but since most patients want immediate effects, an anesthetic medicine is used.

Knowing the procedure

Please note that you can not ask your doctor for epidural steroid injections. Without the patient has stopped responding to nonsurgical treatments, doctors do not try ESIs. In most cases, certain imaging tests are done, so as to find the right spot where the nerve roots at pressed or have a problem. In some cases, a x-ray machine may be used by the doctor, just to find the right point where the needle must be placed.

The need for epidural steroid injections

Typically, epidural steroid injections are used as the last resort to offer pain relief, especially in cases of extreme pain, often related to a condition known as “lumbar spinal stenosis”. This condition mainly starts from the lower spine and often spreads to the legs. There is limited information on how these injections may work in the long run, but like most steroid injections, this too offers relief for the next few weeks. It is always best to talk to your doctor, who can suggest more details in this regard. However, in cases of lumbar spinal stenosis, other treatments are tried and used as well.

What are the side effects?

There can be a few side effects with ESIs, but that varies from case to case. In most cases, the focus is on reducing the pain, so the minimal adverse effects are ignored. However, if you have issues with breathing or have swelling on your facial area, do contact your doctor immediately. There can be some pain at the injection site, but if that does not subside in the next couple of days, check with your doctor. For immediate swapping at the injection site, you can use ice, which will also offer some relief from the associated pain.

Pain management clinics have a lot of information on epidural steroid injections. If you need to know more about lumbar spinal stenosis, you should consult a doctor at the earliest. With early intervention, other treatments may work more effectively for you, but it also depends on how you respond to the standard treatment plans.

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Cosmetic Medicines Ordering, Storage, Supply and Incident Reporting

This article gives an overview of the systems and processes that must be followed by cosmetic clinicians when supplying prescription medicines.

A prescription medicine or drug legally requires a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist to write a prescription for a named patient. The list of drugs and prescribing qualifications may vary in different countries.

A cosmetic clinician must ensure that all medicines are ordered, stored and supplied within the legislative and other relevant pharmaceutical guidelines available.

Therefore ordering, storage and supply of medicines for use within the practice must be undertaken according to appropriate procedures and guidelines to ensure all relevant legislative and pharmaceutical information is adhered to.

Any medicines stored within a typical cosmetic clinic are those used for aesthetic purposes, this includes drugs such as Botox ® and Hyaluronidase . These must be stored according to manufacturer's guidelines in a locked refrigerator or locked cabinet as appropriate. The temperature of the refrigerator should be monitored and documented daily. If the temperature is found to be outside the recommended range the pharmacy supplier must be informed as soon as possible and if necessary the medicines are returned to the supplier and a new supply obtained.

Supply of Medicines and Maintainant Patient Records for Cosmetic Clinics

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for maintaining a record of medicines obtained from the supplier for use during treatment. A copy of the prescription is retained in the patient's notes and the following information is stated in the Medicines IN register. The Medical practitioner must include the following details:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided by the pharmacy

– the amount provided by the pharmacy

– the format of the medicine (oral I IM etc)

– the batch numbers and expiration dates

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for ensuring that details of the medicines administrated are recorded in the patient notes, including:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided

– the route of administration

– the batch number and expiration date of the medicine

– the date and time of administration

The Medical Practitioner must also document in the Medicines OUT register the name of the patient the medicine was administered to and the date and time of administration. This will ensure an audit trail is available for each practitioner.

All medicines not used or expired must be returned to the pharmacy.

In conclusion only a medical professional should be accepted on a cosmetic training course. This will ensure all practitioners have experience with the use of prescription only medicines and record keeping. The medical practitioner who facilitates a cosmetic intervention should be a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist. These specialists have the preliminary medical experience plus understand their legal and ethical requirements in prescribing, dispensing and administration of such drugs.

Any errors with the medication must be recorded and reported.

Reporting a Medication Incident

A cosmetic clinician must ensure that all medication accidents follow local legislative and other guidelines for your country of practice. The following is based on the UK CQC guidelines.

All practitioners involved with medication prescribing, dispensing or administration must be aware of the procedures to be followed in the event of a medication error or near miss.

Medication errors or near misses will occur despite having risk procedures in place, and all personnel involved in medication prescribing, dispensing or administration are at risk of being involved an error or a near miss. Because of this, comprehensive reporting of all medication accidents is crucial to enable the organization to learn from mistakes and improve practice wherever possible.

All incidents involving medication prescribing, dispensing or administration, 'near misses' and serious drug reactions must be documented on the Incident Report Form. A medication error is a preventable incident or omission that results in an increase in the risk of patient harm. A 'near miss' is a medication error that is discovered before it reaches the patient, so preventing harm to the patient.

What to Report

The following are some of the issues that require an incident report:

– incorrect dose administered (both over and under dosing)

– incorrect route of administration

– incorrect rate of administration

– incorrect drug administered

– administration to the wrong patient

– failure to document administration in the patient's medical notes

– administration of an expired drug

– prescribing errors

– incorrect labels

– allergies not recorded

– serious adverse effects including allergic reactions

Near Misses will also be recorded on the Incident Report form.

How to Report Medication errors

Medication errors involving administration to a patient will be documented in the patient's notes. The Medical Practitioner should inform the patient.

The incident should be documented completely before the end of the day. This report form must be completed by the Medical Practitioner and given to the Practice Manager without delay.

Follow Up Procedures for Medication Errors

A follow-up is undertaken by the Medical Practitioner to ensure the safety of the patient. If necessary the patient must be referred to the nearest Emergency department for further review. The Practice Manager must undertake an investigation into the event involving a statement is taken from those involved.

The incident must be discussed at the next Clinical Governance meeting and an action plan developed to aim to prevent recurrence; this may include further training for the personnel involved.

Any severe medication incident must be reported to the within 24 hours of it occurring.

I hope you enjoyed the article. For more information about medicines and their regulations you can check with the Department of Health and MRHA in the UK. In the USA please refer to The Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

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Aseptic Processing

If you go back in time, hygienic practices were not even heard of let alone carried out. Medicines were made primarily of plants and whatever else was on hand and even, during the Victorian period when pharmaceuticals became more main stream, they were not very worried about how sterile the compounds were.

Today of course, pharmaceuticals are big business and having a product delivered to a patient sterile and ready to go is the norm. We're talking eye drops, ear drops, injectables, infusion products and the like, all things that have to remain sterile until ready to use.

By definition, something that is sterile has the absence of any viable microorganism, and the specification is unchanging and independent of the manufacturing process of the drug in the first place. To make a sterile product then, means filling and sealing the product containers under high quality environmental conditions, with care and with the same practices in place day after day.

When you are talking foods, beverages and medicines, keeping them sterile is a process called aseptic processing. This means that the sterile product is packaged in such a way as to keep its sterile rating. It is accomplished by flash heating which uses less energy than other techniques while (in the case of food) retains more nutrients. When you are talking pharmaceuticals, the ante is upped and the procedure also includes the use of clean rooms, bacteria retaining filters, and either dry or steam heat.

Some examples of food and drinks being in a sterile container include tetra juice boxes and drink pouches, but for medicines, they are stored in plastic or glass containers as these substances form a tight seal against microbiological organisms, contaminants, and degradation of the substance being carried. Using aseptic processing means you no longer need refrigeration and it makes worldwide import and export safe and economic.

Aseptic containers range in size from tiny ones that hold just a few ounces of medicine to ones that can hold eight million gallons in a tank on an ocean liner. Companies that package these medicines and the like can then send their product all over the world, knowing that once it reaches its destination, it is still a viable, sterilized product and will remain that way until it is used for a patient.

The next time you have a prescription for eye drops or have medicines administered by injection or drip, you can be sure those medications are sterile, all thanks for aseptic processing.

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Sterility in Medicine

We are lucky to live in this century, one where medicines have been developed to combat most ailments, where we can be sure that the medicines we have are safe and sterile when needed and if we need a surgery, that the tools and equipment needed is all safe, clean and germ free.

Through history, they did not give much thought to keeping things clean and sterile, but luckily today we know that it is used to promote health and to eliminate the risk of contamination. What does being sterile mean though? Well, sterility is defined as the complete absence of any viable microorganism whether on a surgical tool, on equipment or in medicines themselves.

There are a few different ways that sterility is achieved in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. The first is using steam. This technique was actually invented back in the 1880's by a man called Charles Chamberland. He came up with the autoclave, a steam sterilizer that used water to create steam to clean surgical tools and kill bacteria among patients. Today we still use this technique to clean glassware and surgical instruments.

What about things that can not withstand high temperatures? In the case of sensitive electronic components, plastics and cardboard that need to be sterilized, the technique is EtO or EO, ​​and it uses Ethylene Oxide gas as the sanitizing agent.

Another way to sanitize things is by the use of dry heat. This is used for things like needles and metal instruments that can get very hot with no worry that they will disintegrate.

But what about medicines themselves? They can not be steamed, but they can go through the process known as aseptic processing. This takes a sterile medicine and packages it in a sterile container using flash heating. It is a task that also requires the use of clean rooms, bacteria retaining filters and dry heat. By using this technique however, medicines can be imported and exported anywhere in the world without the need for refrigeration and will be sterile when they arrive at the patient.

Sterile medicines, equipment and tools all help to provide the best care possible to us when we are sick. We do not have to worry about contamination as the risks for it is low if all temperatures, gases, humidity and pressure levels have been accurately monitored throughout the sterilization process to ensure validity and effectiveness. Medicine has come a long way and the results are safer and more reliable than ever before.

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Understanding Molecular Medicine and Its Major Advantages

Molecular medicine is a broad concept and it incorporates the study of molecular structures, identifying genetic errors for the cause of a disease, use medical nanotechnology to correct them. The fundamental concept of molecular medicine is the distribution of medicine to the body cells and it is similar to the assimilation of oxygen by a healthy human being. The discipline (molecular medicine) is new. It combines medical studies of modern times with biochemistry. It offers a bridge between today's medical science and biochemistry. The course of molecular biology includes disciplines such as biochemistry, immunology, and biotechnology. Nanotechnology in medicine has many advantages like it leads to reduced costs of treatment, cost-effective and yet high quality drugs. Nanotechnology in medicines help in effective diagnosis and treatment of diseases, it will lead to modern treatment methods, treating complicated medical problems can become simplified.

Benefits of molecular medicine

Molecular medicines and nanotechnology in medicine have their own advantages. These include the following: –

  • Molecular medicines can lead to the invention of elegant and cheap surgical / diagnostic tools.
  • Medical diagnosis and research can become effective and efficient.
  • Nano medical devices can be implanted permanently to treat specific medical conditions.
  • Many medical conditions can be invented.
  • Unknown diseases can be treated effectively.
  • This can lead to semi-automated diagnosis and treatment.
  • The nanotechnology in medicines help to reduce mortality rate, improve health.
  • Using gene therapy or similar treatment methods, organs can be replaced easily.
  • The different biological systems in the body can be improved.

When nanotechnology is applied in medicine then it is known as Nano medicine. It caters to the improvement of human health using Nano tools (tools at the molecular level) of the human body. Such technology in medicine encompasses areas like drug delivery using nano-particles.

The human body enterprises of molecules, the use of molecular nanotechnology advances in the human medical services. The Nano medicine helps to understand the functioning of the biological machinery inside the living cells. This understanding helps medical professionals to cater to complicated medical conditions like AIDS, cancer, aging. All these help to bring a significant improvement of the natural human biological structure. The understanding helps to reduce mortality rate, ensure proper functioning at the molecular level of the humans.

The understanding of the molecular medicine has resolved in developing Nano particles / molecules to help transfer medicine to each cell of the body. For a sick or unhealthy entity, such developments in molecular biology lead to effective treatment of complicated diseases. Using Nano medicine, malignant cells within a human body can be tracked and then treated. This entire process includes targeting of bacteria / viruses / tumors within the body by Nano particles, treating infections, diseases.

Molecular medicine advantages

Other advantages of using Nano drugs are given as follows: –

With Nano medicines, treatment is gentle and advanced. Most of such treatments are non-invasive. Powerful drugs may have side effects which can not be ignored. By using molecular medicines, one can reduce the effects of the drugs. Since the use of Nano medicines does not involve surgery therefore it is less painful. Another important advantage of using Nano medicine is that it involves small yet highly sensitive diagnostic tools which accounts for better treatment of diseases. Treatments using Nano technology in medicines are cost effective. It is effective to treat complicated medical conditions like cancer.

Nano medicine disadvantages:

Nano-particles used as part of nanotechnology in medicines uses biochemical pathways, affect the different biological processes of the human body. Under such circumstances, a lack of knowledge about the effects of the nano-particles on the human body, it processes can be a disadvantage. The researchers who deal with design of the nano-particles remain concerned about their toxicity and characterization on their exposure to the biological pathways. If the nano-particles are toxic then they can pose sever threat to the humans and the environment. The researchers remain concerned as the people part of the society use the molecular medicine. In certain instances, researchers remain in doubt of the possible exit of the use of certain Nano medicines.

Nanotechnology in medicines have revolutionized medical treatment. The doctors now see a ray of hope to treat medical conditions and diseases which were untreated earlier. Nano medicines have their own advantages. However, researchers are on to make the most of nanotechnology in the days to come.

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Can You Mix Inalienable Rights With the Business of Medicine?

Actually, we think our work is done, simply by asking the question. Thomas Jefferson tossed the wrench into the process by suggesting in the Declaration of Independence that Americans should have inalienable rights including life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

Setting liberty and the pursuit of happiness aside, for now, generally, we divide rights into those which are natural versus legal. Clearly, we have some rights simply because they are allowed and supported by our highly malleable laws and legal system. Other rights are considered essentially independent of law, current acceptable social manner, contemporary political correctness, and leanings of the present government. These rights are seen as expected or natural. And, that which is natural or universal comes to be seen as inalienable.

Rights define our senses of behavioral freedom and sense of entitlement. They circumscribe our expectations of our behavior, that of others, and that expected of corporate entities which are often referred to as if sentient. In our civilization, a body of people of shared civil menners and rights are the bricks and mortar forming the infrastructure of morality, law, and governance we share.

From this point, you work backward. Considering government to be the arbiter, the issues pertinent to unalienable rights are then based upon the society's decisions defending our morality. Morality is an essential element because inalienable rights generally address the “good,” by necessity defying the bad, right, wrong, and so on. Of course, different religious / spiritual groups, Atheists, legalists and the undecided regarding a source of ultimate moral authority never all agree on the “good”. Even inalienable rights are always a socially dynamic issue, including the definitions and rights relating to “life”.

If in the US there is such an entity as an inalienable right to life, then such encompasses the inalienable right to that which keeps you alive. That is, you can not live without attending to the needs for food, water and all that which protects you from, or is applied in response to the adverse effects of living in our world (AAOL). We do not all have access to ideal food and water, but we shall also be put that aside for now. However, what is society's responsibility to address the AAOL on people's well-being? If the effects of AAOL are physical and mental illness, injury, disease, and disability, then it would appear that comprehensive medical care for our citizens is the appropriate response to addressing this inalienable right.

Presume that everyone both empowered and relevant to considering the above arguments drew comparable conclusions. In that case, they would agree that every citizen should have access to comparable medical care. The challenges then became 1) access as primarily defined by the distribution of care facilities, appropriate service providers, and products, and 2) management of quality and cost of products / services delivery.

The cost of all contemporary medical products, services, and related insurance increases much faster, year over year than personal incomes and net revenue growth of the average business. So, most Americans and their employers are not prepared to handle the costs of medical care purchase directly or via insurance. Issues of access and distribution side, government intervention to address medical care as an inalienable right then means either 1) marked cost capping and controlling consumer fees, 2) subsidizing patient payments, or 3) a combination. Capping and controlling costs would cause an evolution in the business of medicine. All participants (pharmaceutical companies, medical instruments and soft goods manufacturers, sales / distribution organizations, clinicians, insurers, IT services and others) in the industry would need to reconsider their own margins, as well as their ability and willingness to remain in the medical industry . However, our government needs to control the sometimes markedly excessive and inflammatory medical billing practices. Capping and controlling costs should ideally be tackled first, addressing runaway fees associated with hospital services, pharmaceutical products, surgical procedures, medical hardware, other medical technologies and insurance coverage. All components of the medical system will resist capping and controlling fee schedules.

Providing patient fee subsidies will always be fraught with inflationary excesses, deductibles and patient portions of bills would need to be eliminated. Even nominal point of service charges could always be a challenge unless the net annual out of pocket personal expenses do not exceed the price of a visit to a fast food venue eliminate them. Otherwise, the middle and lower economic strata and their [potential] employers would continue to be obliged to choose between eating, acquisition of other necessities, employment and offering benefits. Additionally, service providers should not be allowed to bill in excess of fee schedules, writing off the excesses as tax deductions.

There are many products and services people should not expect to purchase if they have not financially successful in life to the extent of their more affluent neighbors. As such, nobody would suggest that all have the inalienable right to own a brand new luxury automobile, yacht or personal jet. However, if as a society we state that life, including full, high-quality medical care is an inalienable right of American citizens, then we should deliver it, without burdening others. But, there is “no free lunch” even regarding medical care. So what does “full, high-quality medical care for all citizens, without burdening others” actually mean? It may need to be defined in two ways: 1) products and services price caps, and 2) society attitude adjustment.

Regarding society attitude adjustment, as an example, we already provide military services to protect the nation nation without trying to provide some stratified, sliding scale, itemized bill to each citizen. Medical services could have been addressed in a similar manner. If medical businesses were all conscripted, essentially impartially contracted, to deliver care in a uniform manner (eg, blend of active military care and preferred provider organization models), with a central payer and QA provider, maybe we could do it.

However, unlike changes in health measures, per capita, government spending on healthcare is a poor indicator of the effectiveness of US medical care. Neither is ACA enrollment a measure of care delivery or effective care (eg, see if holding a season ticket is a measure of NFL game attendance this year). Throwing taxpayer money at a series of poorly cobbled strategies is not an effective national medical care solution. Inalienable right or not, we can not deliver broad-based high-quality medical care to all citizens via current medical business models.

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What Is Olympics Cupping Therapy?

Through Olympics cupping, designed for athletes you can not only strengthen your blood flow but at the same time reduce muscle tension and promote the cell repair. It is even beneficial for connective tissues and aids in the formation of new blood vessels present within them. Athletes make use of cupping services by sports physiotherapy center to heal a host of conditions and aliments.

Different Types of Cupping
In the ancient era, cupping was performed with the help of animal horns. Later different cups made up of ceramic and bamboo evolved. Effective suction through these cups was possible with the use of heat, the cups were first heated in fire and then applied. Once they were cooled, they drew the skin due to pressure difference.

Modern cupping utilize cups that are crafted from glass and are rounded like balls. The two main types of cupping include:

• Wet Cupping
• Dry Cupping

In wet cupping a combination of medicines and suction is used to treat the patient, while for dry cupping only the suction method is implemented. Your preferences, present condition and the problems that you are going through help you choose the appropriate one.

What To Expect From Olympics Cupping Treatment
During the treatment, a specialized cup is placed on the skin and the vacuum sucks the muscle upwards. This creates a pressure onto the vessels, allowing the muscle to relax and relieves tension. The cups are usually allowed to settle for a period of 5 – 10 minutes after which they are removed and placed at another part of the skin. The process continues until a particular segment of the body has been rejuvenated by the cupping session.

To help athletes make the most of it, practitioners combine the power of cupping along with acupuncture to treat skin issues, digestions and other associated problems.

Cupping is able to cure a wide range of conditions that athletes often suffer at some point or the other and these include
• Facial Paralysis
• Lumbar disc herniation
• Herpes Zoster
• Cervical spondylosis

The best part about this therapy is that it has zero side-effects or risks, allowing you to attain a perfect body without any complications.

But, before you begin with your cupping session do make sure that you consult with qualified practitioners about your conditions, past medical records and your expectations from the treatment. Because this ancient integrative medicine requires the support of both practitioners and patients in order to achieve successful results.

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Three Important Things to Know About Radicava

The ALS Association is the largest charity for people with Lou Gehrig's disease in the United States. Not only do they provide excellent patient provision through care takers and support groups, they are also the leading fundraiser for new research when it comes to ALS treatment and a possible cure. During the summer of 2014, the ALS Association's Ice Bucket Challenge went viral online and raised over 100 million dollars. This was the largest amount of contributions the fundraisers at ALS had ever seen. They were ecstatic! This boost in funding led to the research and development of three new treatments for Lou Gehrig's disease, one being Radicava, which will likely be available August of this year. Here's what you need to know:

  1. Radicava slows the progress of ALS by reducing oxidative stress in the body. ALS is essentially a slow reduction in the body's ability to function overall. This event leads to the shutdown of vital organs within the body. One of the first signs of ALS is the presence of oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between the presence of toxins in the body and the immune system's ability to detoxify. These effects will first manifest themselves as a general slowing of autoimmune abilities followed by the more sinister effects of ALS, such as major organ failure. Radicava offers a time out to these unfortunate realities. The new medication has been shown to slow oxidative stress, and most patients see a 33% reduction in the decline of their physical abilities. Additionally, all Radicava test patients had higher scores on the ALS Functional Rating Scale.
  2. First new medicine in 22 years. Because the origins of ALS are still terribly misunderstood, it is incredibly difficult to approve and test new medicines. Since the mid nineteenth century, our knowledge of what causes ALS has not kept up with other medical advances. Because of this, it is incredibly difficult to find funding for new treatments when legislatures do not understand the medicinal promise. The first and last drug to be approved for treatment of ALS was Riluzole, which slowed lung failure. Unfortunately, the relatively small benefit offered to ALS patients compared to its astronomical costs essentially relegated Riluzole to pipe dream status. The mystery surrounding its origins combined with a lack of funding lead to a two decade ASL treatment dry spell. However, after the 2014 Ice Bucket Challenge, three new treatments were presented to the FDA for approval. The first to reach the pharmaceutical market will be Radicava in August!
  3. Administered by infusion. At this point you're probably wondering how Radicava will be administered to patients. Is it overly intrusive or painful? Will it even be worth it? For those who participated in the testing of the drug, Radicava absolutely is. The treatment is administrated intravenously over a fourteen day period, followed by a fourteen day rest. After the initial treatment, patients will receive injections for ten out of every fourteen days. While this is a time-consuming treatment, this is the first ASL medication with legitimate promise for, not only extending the lives of those with Lou Gehrig's disease, but also improving their quality of life!

After so many years of failed treatments and questions surrounding the origins of ALS, Radicava's approval is a beacon of hope for patients and their loved ones.

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